Malaysia the Project for Model Development for E-Waste Collection, Segregation and Transportation from Households for Recycling (2024)

Malaysia Department of Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Malaysia

The Project for Model Development for E-waste Collection,

Segregation and Transportation from Households for Recycling

Final Report

March 2013

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Sustainable System Design institute (SSDi) Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd.

Contents

1. Outline of the Project 1 1.1 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE 1

1.2 PROJECT TITLE 2

1.3 BOUNDARY OF THE PROJECT TARGET 2

1.4 TARGET E-WASTE 2

1.5 PROJECT DESIGN MATRIX 4

1.6 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRUCTURE 7

2. Achievement of project purpose 10

3. Results of activities 11 3.1 ACTUAL SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS 11

3.2 RESULTS OF ACTIVITIES 12

3.3 CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT 36

4. Training in Japan 38

ST 4.1 1 TRAINING IN JAPAN FOR POLICY MAKERS 38

ND 4.2 2 TRAINING IN JAPAN FOR RECYCLERS 39

5. Challenges in conducting the Project 41

6. Recommendations for attaining the overall goal 44

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings 45

Annexes

I. CURRENT SITUATION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

II. E-WASTE FLOW ANALYSIS

III. E-WASTE FLOW STUDY

IV. PILOT PROJECT PLAN WITH EVALUATION

V. EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEM MECHANISMS OF E-WASTE ALAM COLLECTION SYSTEM WITH PLANNERS NOTES

VI. PILOT PROJECT TROUBLESHOOTING

VII. STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURE

VIII. FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR AN EPR SYSTEM BASED ON THE EPR SYSTEMS IN ASIAN COUNTIES

IX. RECORD OF SEMINARS AND WORKSHOPS

X. PROGRAM GUIDE FOR STUDY TOUR IN JAPAN FOR POLICY MAKERS

XI. PROGRAM GUIDE FOR STUDY TOUR IN JAPAN FOR RECYCLERS

Data

A. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY 1

B. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY 2

C. TASK BOOK

D. DESIGN BOOK

E. NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS

F. PRESENTATIONS

Abbreviations

DOE Department of Environment EPU Economic Planning Unit JCC Joint Coordinating Committee JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency IT Information Technology MHLG Ministry of Housing and Local Government MPPP Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (Municipal Council of Penang Island) NRE Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment NSWMD National Solid Waste Management Department SW Scheduled Waste SWM Solid Waste Management P/P Pilot Project e-waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste

1. O UTLINE OF THE P ROJECT

1.1 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

(1) Background

a) Hazardousness and resource value Many materials, such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic, contained in different e-wastes can be potentially hazardous, if improperly handled throughout their lifecycle. If the e-wastes are disposed in landfills, these materials have potential to leach in landfills and contaminate surface and ground water, if the leachate containing such materials leaches out from the landfill. In addition, the resources are lost for future use. Valuable resources can be recovered from e-waste, which contribute towards sustainable development and environmental protection.

b) DOE's responsibility E-waste is one of the Scheduled Wastes stipulated by the Environmental Quality Regulations 2005 under the Environmental Quality Act, 1974. The code of e-waste is SW110. DOE has a responsibility to control the SWs including e-waste. Among the DOE's responsibilities, especially, DOE is responsible to license e-waste recycling activities including partial and full recycling facility.

c) E-waste generators E-wastes are generated both in households and factories, while the SWs are mainly generated in factories. DOE has a rich experience to manage e-wastes from factories and SWM companies, but it has little experience to deal with e-waste from households. Therefore, DOE would like to seek a possible e-waste collection system by setting up a pilot project in managing e-waste from households.

(2) Objective The Project aims at developing an appropriate, effective and efficient e-waste collection system from households by working with DOE. The developed system is expected to be used as a model for expanding it to the nationwide collection system. At the same time, it is expected for DOE to derive policy implications for the future expansion.

1. Outline of the Project ▌1 1.2 PROJECT TITLE The official title of the Project is "The Project for Model Development for e-waste Collection, Segregation and Transportation from Households for Recycling." and a pilot project for e-waste is scheduled in Penang Island. The short name can be proposed as "Penang E-waste Project."

1.3 BOUNDARY OF THE PROJECT TARGET The project scope is shown in Figure 1-1. It includes the e-waste generation stage up till the stage where collected wastes are transported to the full-recovery facilities1.

Figure 1-1. Scope of the Project Note: The Project targets e-wastes from households, but businesses similar to households such as small offices will be also targeted.

1.4 TARGET E-WASTE

(1) DOE's categorization DOE, in its guideline "Guidelines for the Classification of Used Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Malaysia (second edition, 2010)," categorizes e-waste as follows:

 Used television,  Used air-conditioner,  Used computer,  Used refrigerator,

1 E-waste recycling factories are classified to two categories: 1) full recovery facility and 2) partial recovery facility. Full recovery facilities are functioned to recover metals including precious metals. Partial recovery facilities are functioned to dismantle E-wastes and sort the dismantled parts.

2 ▐  Used washing machine,  Used video recorder,  Used telephone,  Used photostat machine,  Used facsimile machine,  Used microwave/ oven,  Used radio,  Used printers,  Used audio amplifier,  Used cathode ray tube (CRT),  Used electric cable,  Used mobile phone,  Used motherboard,  Used hard disk drive,  Used printed circuit board (PCB),  Used waste metal contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, lithium, silver and manganese,  Used lead frame,  Used patterned wafer,  Used or rejected or waste of integrated circuit,  Used electrical and electronic equipment/ product imported from other countries; and  Wastes or products processed out of the partial recovery facilities.

(2) Criteria for screening the target e-wastes As a pilot project, the target e-wastes in the Project are selected by the following criteria.

 The amount of e-wastes generated in households  Hazardousness  The amount of valuable materials  Existence of voluntary collection programs coordinated by industries  Easiness to be scattered  Easiness to be mixed in municipal solid waste

(3) Target e-waste screening The following table shows the result of screening the target e-wastes by using the abovementioned criteria, with the number of "+" shown in the far right column. The target e-wastes were set as the following six items which marked more than four points.

 Used television  Used air-conditioner

1. Outline of the Project ▌3  Used computer (including accessories, peripheral devices and printers)  Used refrigerator  Used washing machine  Used mobile phone Table 1-1. Screening target e-wastes by screening criteria The Hazardous- The Existence Easiness to Easiness to Number of amount of ness amount of of voluntary be be mixed in "+" e-wastes valuable collection scattered municipal generated materials programs solid waste in coordinated household by industries Used television ++ ++ + 5 Used ++ + ++ 5 air-conditioner Used computer + ++ + 4 Used refrigerator ++ + + 4 Used washing ++ + + 4 machine Used video + + 2 recorder Used telephone + + 2 Used facsimile + + 2 machine Used microwave/ + + 2 oven Used radio + + 2 Used printers + + 2 Used audio + + 2 amplifier Used mobile phone + ++ + + + 6 Used hard disk + + 2 drive (Note) The following items were omitted from screening, because they are generated only from industries. - Used photostat machine, Used cathode ray tube (CRT) - Used electric cable, Used motherboard, Used printed circuit board (PCB) - Used waste metal contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, lithium, silver and manganese - Used lead frame - Used patterned wafer - Used or rejected or waste of integrated circuit - Used electrical and electronic equipment/ product imported from other countries - Wastes or products processed out of the partial recovery facilities

1.5 PROJECT DESIGN MATRIX The Project Design Matrix (PDM) is shown below.

4 ▐ Important Assumptions Important - E-waste collection, segregation and transportation segregation - E-waste collection, from in Malaysiasystem households is institutionalized. and transportation segregation - collection, A plan of in Penang recycling e-waste approvedis by for MPPP. and DOE - Means of Verification Meansof - Documents and/or materialsany regarding the be provided DOE.by to is that system Project the - Final Report of e-waste of situation current - Report on the be prepared to is management in Penang that e-waste of estimation includes It Project. the through amountdiagram. and an flow e-waste generation project pilot the plan of - Implementation project pilot the - implementation of Records of described in post-evaluation the of - Results Project the Progressof report and/or report final -and recommendations Lessons in Progress report Project the of report and/or final the at conducted assessment capacity of - Results project the end of beginning and the Objectively Verifiable Indicators Verifiable Objectively - E-waste collection, segregation and transportation segregation - E-waste collection, and over. workingis system cities in two and transportation segregation - collection, A plan of in Penang recycling e-waste preparedis for based and recommendationson lessons learned from the project. pilot the implementation of 1-1. amount in PenangE-waste generation is estimated. 1-2. E-wastediagram flow in Penang prepared.is for are clarified 2-1. stakeholders Roles of project. pilot the implementation of is project pilot 2-2. the An implementation plan of prepared. 3-1. are items e-waste Target collected. awarenessraising public for on e- 3-2. Activities are recycling conducted. waste conducted. is project pilot the of 4-1. Post-evaluation 4-2. and recommendations Lessons pilot from the out. are set project the of 70% 5-1. E-wasteof management capacity persons and over improved.is target Narrative Summary Narrative Project Project Title: The Project for Model Development for E-waste Collection, Segregation and Transportation from Households for Recycling Project Period: September 2011 - March 2013 Project Site: Penang Island Target Group: DOE, MPPP Overall Goal: Overall programs for / system and transportation Asegregation proper collection, from are households generated e-waste implementedrecycling nationwide. Purpose:Project model e- recycling for and transportation segregation collection, A practical in project a pilot through from developed is households generated waste Penang. Outputs: regardingand disposal recycling generation, e-waste conditions The present in Penang are studied. activities in and segregation transportation on collection, E-waste plan focused recycling in conditions actual area(s) project the preparedis according to pilot the Penang. area(s) the implemented is project according to project in pilot The pilot proposedplan. recycling e-waste area(s) project are reviewedE-waste implementedplans pilot recycling in the improvement and recommendations learnt the lessons arefor and the presented. and relevant on managemente-waste DOE,Capacity authority of local strengthened. is organizations

1. Outline of the Project ▌5 Precondition: - DOE Headquarters, DOE Penang and MPPP are Project. the conduct agreed to - Stakeholders take the initiative in implementing the initiative the take - Stakeholders project. pilot arises. Project pilot the -to No opposition Manpower (Counterpart) - DOE Headquarters - DOE Penang MPPP - Office - A working in Peneng space Island Input (Malaysian side) Input Manpower (Experts) - Leader/e-waste management planning and transportation - Collection - E-waste (1) recycling - Public awareness - E-waste (2) recycling MalaysianTraining personnel of - in Japan Input (Japanese side) Input / for the present recycling collection planning developed the / on e-waste the ensure proper Japan or other study project area(s) to survey in to lessons learnt and focus on collection, raising pilot of an e-waste the the course in project using which developed e-waste method of system the capacity of e-waste management the pilot project area(s) training plans the the a pilot project area(s) and regulatory control on "Take-Back Scheme public awareness the for / pilot recycling project and review in strengthen to two project based on pilot elements collection, segregation and transportation of e-waste coordination and collaboration mechanism among public awareness program pre-evaluation of pilot study tour and/or evaluation the program the a the the the households / main a for the from propose e-waste evaluate conduct determine one or develop conduct conduct formulate develop an information management conduct seminars or workshops on propose prepare To To To To To To To To To To To To management e-waste of recommendations (extended producer responsibility)" for electronic and electrical equipment and electrical electronic for producer responsibility)" (extended management stakeholders generated area(s) project pilot from in the households Activities and disposal recycling, generation, of conditions present 1-1. To the survey frome-waste in Penang households and amount makeof an potential inventory. streame-waste from in Penang households the and 1-2.make To study a stream chartwaste 2-1. 2-2. 2-3. stakeholders 2-4. Toall the hold a workshop inviting 2-5. 2-6. project pilot the and of methods indexes 2-7. To evaluation develop 3-1. 3-2. awareness public program the 3-3. To conduct 4-1. plan in Penang recycling e-waste 4-2. To propose a future 4-3. on 4.1To and 4.2hold a workshop stakeholders with 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. DOE, authority of local and/or a a training workshop 5-4.officers Tofor conduct on managemente-waste 5-5. plans and the coordination and collaboration mechanism and collaboration coordination and plans the implementation countries the smooth implementation of the proposedplans recycling e-waste the implementation smooth of the conditions in the area(s) in the conditions transportation and segregation considering current situations current considering and segregation transportation organizations and relevant DOE, authority of local evaluation method evaluation

6 ▐ 1.6 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRUCTURE The Project was implemented under the following structure.

Figure 1-2. Project implementation structure

(1) Joint Coordinating Committee

a) Function Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) Meetings were held four (4) times. The main functions of JCC were as follows:

 To approve the annual work plan of the Project,  To review the overall progress and achievements of the Project,  To examine major issues arising from or in connection with the Project,  To work out the modification of activities depending on the necessity; and  To discuss any other issue(s) pertinent to the smooth implication of the Project.

b) Members i) Chairperson  Deputy Director General (Operations) , DOE (Chairperson)

ii) Project Director  Director, Hazardous Substances Division, DOE Headquarters (Project Director)

iii) Project Manager  Director, Director of DOE Penang State Office (Project Manager)

iv) Malaysian side  Representative(s) of NRE, MPPP, NSWMD, MHLG, EPU (International Section & Environmental Section) and any other officials appointed by the Chairperson

1. Outline of the Project ▌7 v) Japanese side  JICA Expert(s), JICA Malaysia Office and other personnel concerned to be decided and/or dispatched by JICA, if necessary

vi) Observers  Representative(s) of the Embassy of Japan in Malaysia  Other official(s) appointed by the Chairperson

(2) Taskforces There taskforces were set as shown in the following figure. Each taskforce was composed of a few members from each organization. The Japanese experts facilitated the taskforce meetings by preparing necessary lectures and specific tasks so that the capacity of the members was to be developed effectively.

Figure 1-3. Members of Taskforces

The table below shows principle counterparts of this project.

Table 1-2. Counterpart member list No. Name Position 1 Ms. Datin Paduka Che Asmah Ibrahim Director, Hazardous Waste Substance Division, Department of Environment 2 Mr. Khiruddin Mohamad Idris Principal Assistant Director, Hazardous Substance Division, Department of Environment 3 Mr. Mohd Zaidi Bin Hassan Assistant Environmental Control Officer, Hazardous Substance Division, Department of Environment 4 Mr. Badlishah Bin Ahmad Head, Operation Division, Department of Environment, Penang

8 ▐ No. Name Position 5 Mr. Mohd Fitri Mohd Mokhtar Assistant Director, Operation Division, Department of Environment 6 Mr. Wong Kiong Kok Senior Principal Assistant Secretary, Policy Division, Ministry of Housing and Local Government 7 Mr. Lim Wei Urn Assistant Director, Environment and Natural Resources Economic Section, Economic Planning Unit 8 Mr. Junus Mubarak Director, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang 9 Mr. Pitchay Sebastian Xavier Assistant Director, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang 10 Mr. V Muthu Arul Selven Senior Health Supervisor, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang

(3) Other relevant organizations DOE HQ has formed and taken initiative of the Official Consultative Meeting which is composed of members from manufactures. Meanwhile, a group that consists of local stakeholders such as appliance retailers and full recovery facilities has been formulated. JICA Expert Team functioned as a technical advisor for the both groups.

(4) Other relevant organizations The table below shows members of the JICA Expert Team.

Table 1-3. JICA Expert Team member list No. Name Position 1 Hideki WADA Leader / e-waste management planning 2 Ikuo MORI Collection and transportation 3 Norihisa HIRATA E-waste recycling 4 Atsushi OTSUKA Public awareness 5 Noriko OTSUKI E-waste recycling

1. Outline of the Project ▌9 2. A CHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT PURPOSE

Achievement of Project Purpose is summarized in the table below.

Table 2-1. Achievement of Project Purpose Plan Actual Achievement Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Project Purpose: A practical collection, segregation and A plan of collection, segregation and - Targets will be set by DOE and MPPP until transportation model for recycling e-waste transportation for e-waste recycling in the final JCC meeting to be held on Feb. 4. generated from households is developed Penang is prepared based on lessons and - Several documents (Annex)2 were through a pilot project in Penang. recommendations learned from the prepared in the course of this project for implementation of the pilot project. achieving the targets. Outputs: The present conditions regarding e-waste 1-1. E-waste generation amount in - E-waste generation amount was estimated, generation, recycling and disposal activities Penang is estimated. which is described in the E-waste Flow in Penang are studied. 1-2. E-waste flow diagram in Penang is Analysis (Annex II). prepared. - E-waste flow diagram was prepared, which is described in the E-waste Flow Study (Annex III).

E-waste recycling plan focused on 2-1. Roles of stakeholders are clarified for - Both outputs were attained. Those are collection, transportation and segregation in implementation of the pilot project. presented in the Pilot Project Plan with the pilot project area(s) is prepared 2-2. An implementation plan of the pilot Evaluation. according to the actual conditions in project is prepared. Penang.

The pilot project is implemented in pilot 3-1. Target e-waste items are collected. - Both were conducted. Results were project area(s) according to the proposed 3-2. Activities for raising public awareness presented in the Pilot Project Plan with e-waste recycling plan. on e-waste recycling are conducted. Evaluation.

E-waste recycling plans implemented in the 4-1. Post-evaluation of the pilot project is - Both were conducted. Results were pilot project area(s) are reviewed and the conducted. presented in the Pilot Project Plan with lessons learnt and recommendations for 4-2. Lessons and recommendations from Evaluation. the improvement are presented. the pilot project are set out.

Capacity on e-waste management of DOE, 5-1. E-waste management capacity of - Capacity may have increased, although the local authority and relevant organizations is 70% of the target persons and over is self-evaluation does not show clearly3. strengthened. improved.

2 Following Documents were prepared. Those are presented in Annex. - Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation - Evolutionary System Mechanisms of E-waste Alam Collection System with Planners Notes - Pilot Project Troubleshooting - Standard Operating Procedure - Factor Analysis for an EPR System Based on the EPR Systems in Asian Counties 3 Self-evaluation was made three times. Many counterparts tended to give high scores on their understanding level at the beginning of the project. The average at the 2nd evaluation recorded the lowest score. Then, the points increased at the 3rd evaluation. This may show that the counterparts realized what the questions are really asking and deepened their understanding on them during the course of the project.

10 ▐ 3. R ESULTS OF ACTIVITIES

3.1 ACTUAL SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS

(1) Activities Activities were conducted as shown in the table below

Table 3-1. Actual schedule of activities Schedule (year, month) 2011 2012 2013 Activity 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 1) The present conditions regarding e-w aste generation, recycling and disposal activities in Penang are studied. 1)-1.To survey the present conditions of generation, recycling, disposal and potential amount of e-w aste from households in Penang and make an inventory 1)-2.To study the e-w aste stream from households in Penang and make a w aste stream chart 2) E-w aste recycling plans focused on collection, transportation and segregation in the pilot project area(s) are prepared according to the actual conditions in Penang. 2)-1.To determine one or tw o pilot project area(s) and to study the present conditions in the area(s) 2)-2.To propose e-w aste recycling plans w hich focus on collection, transportation and segregation considering current situations 2)-3.To develop the coordination and collaboration mechanism among the stakeholders for the collection, segregation and transportation of e-w aste generated 2)-4.To hold a w orkshop inviting all the stakeholders

2)-5.To formulate the public aw areness program in the pilot project area(s) for the smooth implementation of the proposed e-w aste recycling plans 2)-6.To develop an information management system of an e-w aste collection from households in the pilot project area(s) 2)-7.To develop evaluation indexes and methods of the pilot project 3) The pilot project is implemented in pilot project area(s) according to the proposed e- w aste recycling plans. 3)-1.To conduct the pre-evaluation of the pilot project using the developed evaluation method 3)-2.To conduct the pilot project based on the developed e-w aste recycling plans and the coordination and collaboration mechanism 3)-3.To conduct the public aw areness program 4) E-w aste recycling plans implemented in the pilot project area(s) are review ed and the lessons learnt and recommendations for the improvement are presented. 4)-1.To evaluate the pilot project and review the lessons learnt and recommendations

4)-2.To propose a future e-w aste recycling plan in Penang 4)-3.To hold a w orkshop w ith stakeholders on 4.1 and 4.2 5) Capacity on e-w aste management of DOE, local authority and relevant organizations is strengthened. 5)-1.To prepare a program to strengthen the capacity of e-w aste management of DOE, local authority and relevant organizations 5)-2.To conduct seminars or w orkshops on the method of survey / planning / implementation / evaluation / public aw areness raising on e-w aste management 5)-3.To conduct a study tour and/or a training course in Japan or other countries

5)-4.To conduct a training and/or a w orkshop for officers of DOE, local authority on e-w aste management 5)-5.To propose main elements for regulatory control on "Take-Back Scheme (extended producer responsibility)" for electronic and electrical equipment

(2) Major events Major events were held as the table below shows. Year Month Joint Coordinating Committee Seminar/Workshop in Kuala Seminar/Workshop in Penang Lumpur 2011 9 Kick-off meeting in Kuala Lumpur 10 1. Kick-off meeting - Explanation of the Project 11 1. The first JCC - Explanation of the Project

3. Results of activities ▌11 Year Month Joint Coordinating Committee Seminar/Workshop in Kuala Seminar/Workshop in Penang Lumpur 12 2012 1 2. Seminar on the e-waste flow - Report on the e-waste flow in Penang Island 2 3 4 5 2. The second JCC - Report on the e-waste flow in Penang Island - Report on the pilot project scheme 6 3. Grand opening workshop - Report on the pilot project scheme 4. Grand opening event - Promotion activity for the residents 7 8 9 10 11 3. The third JCC 5. Pilot project review workshop - Report on the pilot project - Report on the result of the pilot - Evaluation on the pilot project project - Discussion on the lessons learnt from the pilot project - Discussion on the pilot project expansion strategy 12 2013 1 2 4. The fourth JCC 1. Policy Implication Workshop 6. Hand over workshop - Report on the policy implication - Report on the pilot project - The pilot project was handed - Explanation on the draft final - Report on the policy implication over to the local stakeholders report 3

3.2 RESULTS OF ACTIVITIES

1-1. To survey the present conditions of generation, recycling, disposal and potential amount of e-waste from households in Penang and make an inventory. “The Survey on the Current Situation of E-waste” and “The Questionnaire Survey on Public Attitude to E-waste” were carried out by contracting out to local companies from October 2011 and January 2012. Then, the amounts of target e-wastes were estimated based on the aforementioned surveys and macro data such as population and economic growth. The table below shows the result of estimation. Further details are described in Annex II. E-waste Flow Analysis.

12 ▐

Figure 3-1. Targeted electric and electronic equipment supply in Penang Island

Figure 3-2. Projection of discarded e-waste in Penang Island (excluding repaired e-wastes)

3. Results of activities ▌13 1-2. To study the e-waste stream from households in Penang and make a waste stream chart The results of “The Survey on the Current Situation of E-waste” and “The Questionnaire Survey on Public Attitude to E-waste” were also utilized for studying out waste streams of the target e-wastes. The following figures show target e-waste streams in 2011. Further details are described in Annex III. E-waste Flow Study.

Figure 3-3. E-waste streams of four items (TV, Refrigerator, Washing machine and Air-conditioner) in Year 2011

14 ▐

Figure 3-4. E-waste streams of PCs and Mobile Phone in Year 2011

2-1. To determine one or two pilot project area(s) and to study the present conditions in the area(s) The P/P aimed to involve various stakeholders who are actors in the e-waste streams. Especially, retailers and supermarkets are accounted important in addition to the MPPP collection centers as e-waste collection points. Customers who visit them come from various localities. Therefore, this P/P did not specify certain area(s) as P/P area(s). This issue was discussed in Taskforce Meetings and the members reached to this understanding.

2-2. To propose e-waste recycling plans which focus on collection, transportation and segregation considering current situations A set of e-waste recycling plans were formulated and compiled as Pilot Project Plan. Outline of the Pilot Project Plan is described below. Full text of the Plan is presented in Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation.

a) Preconditions i) Objective of the Pilot Project The Pilot Project aimed at testing an appropriate, effective and efficient e-waste collection

3. Results of activities ▌15 system from households. The tested system supplied the data which were able to be used for discussing a nationwide model for an e-waste collection system as well as a new policy by DOE.

ii) Assumptions and strategies Some sorts of incentives to the customers were required in order to collect e-wastes from households, where e-wastes are traded as economic goods in the conventional recycling market. E-waste flow might was controlled by:

 giving incentives to consumers,  giving a convenient and timely opportunities to customers (collection upon delivery and upon repurchase) and  giving many opportunities to recycle e-waste (regular buy back services to customers).

iii) Target e-wastes The target e-wastes were as stated in the Inception Report, but were classified in detail through the discussions with the related full recovery facilities as follows.

 Television set (Brown Tube Type)  Television set (non-CRT Type)  Refrigerator  Washing machine  Air-conditioner (Full set)  Personal computer (Desktop)  Personal computer (Notebook)  Printer  Mobile phone  DVD player, VCD player and etc.  Others (Battery charger, Mobile phone battery, mouse, keyboard, etc.)

b) Concept of Pilot Project System i) Current problems Currently, e-wastes are majorly dealt by the conventional recyclers whose handling practices are unsure and not monitored. The e-wastes collected by conventional recyclers are then going to the scrap dealers, where e-waste flow is again not monitored and unsure.

16 ▐

Figure 3-5. Problems of the present major flow of e-waste ii) Mission of the Pilot Project For the Pilot Project System to succeed, it is crucial to switch the major e-waste flow to a more reliable channel as shown in the following figure.

Figure 3-6. Requirement for the Pilot Project System iii) Strategy to switch the flow To change the e-waste flow means to change the human behavior. The human behavior can be induced by some ways. One of the most effective ways is to use economic incentives.

3. Results of activities ▌17 The reason why the current e-waste flows to the conventional recyclers is “money”. People can get money, if they bring their e-wastes to the nearest conventional recyclers, even the amount is very small. The new system should include certain economic incentives attractive enough to change the discarders’ behavior. In the Pilot Project System, the buying prices set by the full recovery facilities were given to the discarders. The prices set by the full recovery facilities are competitive enough compared to the prices shown by the conventional recyclers, because the prices set by the full recovery facilities do not include the trade margins which are enjoyed by the conventional recyclers. In addition, other incentives were considered in the Pilot Project System. They are labor saving and time saving. People can save their labor to bring their e-wastes to the conventional recyclers, if the e-wastes are collected by someone. For this, some home electric appliance shops were invited. They can receive e-wastes from households when they deliver e-products. Also, as for mobile phones, it is a very good chance to offer end-of-life mobile phones collection upon repurchase. For this, the cooperation from some mobile phone shops was requested.

Supermarkets are perfect places to collect e-wastes. They have large parking lots and the opening hour is very long. The residents can bring their e-wastes when they come for shopping. This may be very convenient for the customer, which could work as an economic incentive.

Figure 3-7. Concept of the Pilot Project System

18 ▐ c) Basic system i) Material flow  Home electric appliances shops collect the e-wastes from customers’ houses upon delivery of purchased products. They also receive the e-wastes carried into their shops by customers.  Mobile phone shops receive end-of-life mobile phones upon repurchasing. In addition, even in the case of no repurchasing, they also receive the used mobile phones carried into their shops by customers.  Hypermarkets receive e-wastes brought by the customers.  Full recovery facilities transport e-wastes collected by the shops upon necessity.

Figure 3-8. Material flow in the Pilot Project

ii) Money flow  Upon receiving e-wastes from customers, e-waste vouchers are issued and given to the customers.  The vouchers can be used not only at the shop issued the voucher but also at other shops participating in the Pilot Project.  Every month, the participating shops can issue the invoices to the full-recovery facility, attached by the vouchers used.

3. Results of activities ▌19

Figure 3-9. Money flow in the Pilot Project

d) Pilot Project Implementation i) Project period Although the duration of the Pilot Project was set as follows, MPPP and related organizations are expected to continue the activities even after the end of the Pilot Project.

 June 2, 2012 until November 30, 2012 (six months)

ii) Initial participants The participants who started to collect e-wastes under the new system of the Pilot Project from June 2 were set as the table below. The autonomy of the participating companies was taken into account most. “Sunshine” (a supermarket chain nationwide) in Penang Island, SPASTIC (The “Chrebal Palay Children's Association of Penang”) and MPPP had started another computer collection systems before the commencement of the Pilot Project (The outline of this system can be referred in Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management). JICA Expert Team and MPPP discussed that this existing system will be incorporated into the new system in future.

Table 3-2. Participants to start collection of e-waste from June 2 Company name Business category Number of shops in Penang Island Ban Hin Bee (BHB) Home electric appliance shop 5 (BHB Outlets) 2 (Kitchentech Outlets) Loo Soon Seng Electrical (LSS) Home electric appliance shop 3 Channel Communication & Mobile phone shop 1 Electronics Centre (CCEC) Sun Win Phone Shop Mobile phone shop 1 iii) Full recovery facility Shan Poornam Metals and TES-AMM (Malaysia) were selected as the recyclers in charge of the Pilot Project. Also, it was confirmed that Reclaimtek would continue to support the

20 ▐ existing collection system. Shan Poornam Metals and TES-AMM took turns for the transportation weekly, while the invoices from the local businesses were sent to TES-AMM. The two companies collaborated with each other in the financial arrangement.

e) Initial prices of the common vouchers i) Price of voucher The prices of the voucher were set out at what was considered reasonable by the full recovery facilities by considering the assumed metal concentration depending on the types of the e-wastes, as shown in the following table. It was concluded to use the prices as tentative ones, because the data on the metal concentration of the e-wastes collected from households are not well accumulated yet, as well as the prices of the metals are fluctuating according to the metal market. These initial prices will be reconsidered later after the commencement of the Pilot Project.

Table 3-3. Initial prices of e-wastes E-waste Price Remarks Television set (Brown Tube Type) RM12/Unit Television set (Flat Type) RM15/Unit Refrigerator RM10/Unit Washing machine RM10/Unit Air-conditioner RM20/Unit Full set Personal computer (Desktop) RM5/Unit Personal computer (Notebook) RM5/Unit Printer RM1/Unit Mobile phone RM40/Unit By a lucky draw with 10% hits DVD player, VCD player and etc. RM2/Unit Others RM0/Unit Battery charger, Mobile phone battery, mouse, keyboard, etc. ii) Design of voucher Vouchers were designed so as not to be forged. Special stickers were used on the voucher for this purpose.

Figure 3-10. Common Voucher (Left: front, Right: rear) (Note) The dot and the hatched part below the logo are special stickers so as not to be forged.

3. Results of activities ▌21 2-3. To develop the coordination and collaboration mechanism among the stakeholders for the collection, segregation and transportation of e-waste generated from households in the pilot project area(s) to ensure proper management of e-waste

a) Two target groups There are two target groups having been involved in the Project. One was local businesses by which the Pilot Project was implemented. The other was e-products manufactures with which appropriate EPR was discussed. Thus,

 Official consultative meeting for designing the policies and  Local working group meeting for designing the pilot project, were formed involving these stakeholders, as shown in the following figure.

DOE Head Chairperson State of Penang Quarter

Public Consultative Local Working Group Meeting Meeting Meeting for policy design for pilot project design

Major members Manufactures EEE retailers

Mobile phone shops Hypermarkets Figure 3-11. Framework of coordination and collaboration mechanism

b) Profiles of the two meetings The profiles of these two meetings are shown in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4. Profiles of two meetings for designing Official consultative meeting Local working group meeting Objective Opinion exchange for designing e-waste Designing for the pilot project in Penang recycling Island Chairperson DOE headquarter State of Penang Secretary DOE headquarter UPEN Coordinator - - DOE Penang - MPPP Advisor JICA Experts JICA Experts Place Kuala Lumpur Penang Island The date of the 26 March 2012 23 March 2012 first meeting Category of - Manufactures of home electric appliances - Retailers of electric and electronic products participants - Manufactures of ICT products in Penang - Related business associations - Hypermarkets in Penang - Related Ministries - Mobile phone shops in Penang - Mobile phone carriers in Penang (branch in Penang) - Other related business entities

22 ▐ Official consultative meeting Local working group meeting Remarks FMM coordinated the manufactures of home - electric appliances and PIKOM coordinated the ICT manufactures.

c) “E-waste Alam Alliance –Penang” The above mentioned local working group meeting was upgraded to “E-waste Alam 4 Alliance – Penang” in April, 2012 by the same members participated in the working group. This is an intersectoral business group which will be expected to manage the Pilot Project even after the Project.

Figure 3-12. Logo of “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”

2-4. To hold a workshop inviting all the stakeholders

a) Kickoff seminar The kickoff seminar was held on 24 October 2011, in a ballroom of Vistana Hotel, Penang Island. The main objective of the seminar was to announce the commencement of this project and to draw interests into the project from relevant sectors including recyclers and manufacturers. Presentations were given by the representatives from DOE HQ, MPPP and JICA Expert Team and an external expert invited from a university in Japan.

b) Idea sharing workshop The idea sharing workshop was held on 17 January 2012, in Cititel Hotel, Penang Island. The objective of this workshop was to share ideas about the pilot projects to be implemented from June 2012 among relevant stakeholders. It was in fact the first workshop to talk about how the pilot project was to be designed. The presentation from the JICA expert on the current e-waste flow with volumetric figures gave a good momentum to facilitate the attendants to develop their ideas. The presentation of MPPP and DOH helped the attendants to have a common image of the current recycling practices, and DELL and TES-AMM, the supposed key actors of the pilot project, presented their positive response to the pilot project.

4 “Alam” means environment in Bahasa Malaysia.

3. Results of activities ▌23 c) Pilot Project launching workshop A workshop for launching the Pilot Project was held on June 1, 2012 at E&O Hotel. The participating local businesses were introduced after the concept of the Pilot Project was explained. The total number of participants in the workshop was 86 persons.

d) Pilot Project launching event An outdoor event for celebrating the commencement of the Pilot Project was held on June 2, 2012 at Straits Quay. A “Stamp Rally” and “Lucky Draw” was conducted. More than 500 people came to the event.

2-5. To formulate the public awareness program in the pilot project area(s) for the smooth implementation of the proposed e-waste recycling plans

a) Mass media Utilization of newspaper articles was planned for announcing the Pilot Project commencement, considering that it was the most effective and cheapest way to advertise the Project.

b) Publicity materials Some of publicity materials were developed in order that many residents in Penang got familiar with the Project. Those materials were also presented at retail shops which participated in the Project so that main targets who buy electric and electronic equipment were to be aware of it.

2-6. To develop an information management system of an e-waste collection from households in the pilot project area(s) An information management system was developed as described in this section in order to collect data for appropriate operation, analysis and evaluation of the Pilot Project.

a) Information management system  Shops issue the receipt with four-ply. The four-ply receipts were given to 1) the customer, 2) shops, 3) full recovery facility and 4) “E-waste Alam Alliance”.  When the collected e-wastes were sent to full recovery facilities, the transportation slip was issued by the shops. The three-ply transportation slips were given to 1) shops, 2) full recovery facilities and 3) “E-waste Alam Alliance”.

24 ▐

Figure 3-13. Information flow in the Pilot Project b) Information forms i) E-waste receipt There are two kinds of e-waste receipts. One is for home electric appliance shops and supermarkets, and the other is for mobile phone shops which collect only mobile phones. The e-waste receipts contain 1) purchased units of new products, 2) number of e-wastes applied and 3) brands of the e-wastes. By using the information on brands of e-wastes, the data of amount of e-wastes by brands can be collected.

Figure 3-14. E-waste receipt for home electric appliance shops and supermarkets

3. Results of activities ▌25

Figure 3-15. E-waste receipt for mobile phone shops

ii) Transportation slip The transportation slip shown in the following figure is commonly used by the different types of shops.

Figure 3-16. E-waste transportation slip

iii) Other data to be collected In addition to the abovementioned data, the following data were collected.

- Required time and cost for e-waste collection by home electric appliance shops - Required time and cost for e-waste transportation by full recovery facilities

c) Data compilation i) The amount of e-waste collected For the environment, certain amount of e-waste shall be guided to the appropriate recycling routes. Collection percentage of the e-waste supplied in the past was calculated for each brand.

26 ▐ ii) Cost structures of the participants in the Pilot Project Certain amount of money is needed for collecting e-wastes properly. How much money is required and how it is borne among the participants was calculated5.

2-7. To develop evaluation indexes and methods of the pilot project Six aspects of criteria were set for evaluating the Pilot Project as shown in Figure 3-17 and twelve indicators for the evaluation were set as shown in Figure 3-18. Details are described in the Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation in Annex IV.

Figure 3-17. Six aspects for evaluating the Pilot Project

Figure 3-18. Evaluation indicators

3-1. To conduct the pre-evaluation of the pilot project using the developed evaluation method

5 This does not necessarily mean the direct cost bearing. For example, the home electric appliance retailers can contribute by providing the takeback service to the customers upon delivery of the new products. The labor cost can be converted in terms of money.

3. Results of activities ▌27 The pre-evaluation of the Pilot Project was conducted by applying the above mentioned index system and resulted that the efficiency and effectiveness are fair. The pre-evaluation in detail are presented in Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation. The expected collection rate

defined as were calculated to be 37%. This 푇푇푇푇푇 �푎�푎푎� �표 푒−푤�푤𝑤 푐𝑐𝑐푐𝑐푐 푖� �ℎ푒 푃𝑃𝑃 푃푃�푃𝑃� figure corresponds to푇푇 improve�𝑎 �푎�푎푎 the� �표 policy푒−푤�푤� �indicator𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑� as below.

 1. Hazardousness=1 ( )=42% (Present value=88%) 퐹퐹 − 푊 푖푖 푡푡푡푡푡 표표 푙�푙푙  2. Resource recovery= ( )=40% (Present value=19%) 퐹퐹 푊 푖푖 푡푡푡푡푡 표표 푝𝑝푝𝑝푝� 𝑚𝑚𝑚  3. Traceability= ( )=43% (Present value=9%) 퐹퐹 푊 푖푖 푡푡푡푡푡 표표 � − 푤𝑤𝑤

3-2. To conduct the pilot project based on the developed e-waste recycling plans and the coordination and collaboration mechanism The Pilot Project was launched on 2 June 2012. Some of the results are presented in this section.

a) Participating retail shops So far, 25 retail shops have participated in the Pilot Project as shown in the table below.

Table 3-5. Retail shops participating in the Pilot Project

28 ▐

Figure 3-19. Location of the participating retailers Legend) Square: Home electric appliance shop, Triangle: Mobile phone shop, Circle: Computer shop

b) Collected e-waste The item collected most in terms of number was Mobile Phone. On the other hand, Washing Machine was the item collected most followed by TV(CRT) in terms of weight.

3. Results of activities ▌29

Figure 3-20. Number and weight of collected e-waste

Figure 3-21. Photos of collected e-waste

c) Cooperation rate Cooperation rate of e-waste is tentatively defined as follows:

 (%) = (Collected E-waste ( ))/(Discarded E-waste ( ) * Market Share(%) (1− (%))) 퐶표표푝���푡푖표� ��푡� 푘푔 � 푘푔 The figure below shows the cooperation rate for each item. Mobile Phone recorded a quite ∗ 푅�푝�푖�푅�푡� high rate among the items. Low rates for PC and Printers are due to the fact that these items are not sold by the participating retail shops.

30 ▐

Figure 3-22. Cooperation rate d) Willingness to be paid curve By using the cooperation rates above and the market prices, the willingness to be paid curves were described in Figure 3-23.

Figure 3-23. Willingness to be paid for each type of e-wastes obtained from the collected e-wastes

3. Results of activities ▌31 3-3. To conduct the public awareness program

a) Mass media Newspapers listed below published articles about the Pilot Project Launching.

 The Star  Guang Ming  Sin Chuw  Kwong Hwa  China Press

b) Publicity materials Publicity materials were developed and distributed to the participating retail shops as planned. In addition, a Facebook page was developed, in order to complement the short messages of the publicity materials. The materials guided people to the Facebook page.

Figure 3-24. Publicity materials

Publicity materials such as banners, flyers and sign boards were prepared and distributed to the participating retail shops as shown in the photos below.

32 ▐

Figure 3-25. Publicity materials at retail shops

4-1. To evaluate the pilot project and review the lessons learnt and recommendations The e-waste collection system could collect e-wastes very efficiently. A model for estimating the expected cooperation rates were developed. The system can be used nationwide.

a) Analysis on each type of e-wastes i) Television sets The cooperation rate for television sets was lower than the expected cooperation rate obtained from the questionnaire survey. For attaining a higher collection rate, it is advisable to have the participating retailers explain to the customers that they can collect all types of e-wastes kept in their houses when the customers buy some bulky e-products at the shops.

ii) Refrigerators and washing machines The take back system from households worked the most effectively for refrigerators and washing machines. High collection rates are possible for refrigerators and washing machines as far as shops explain about the e-waste collection service to the customers, if the voucher prices are attractive enough for the customer.

iii) Air-conditioners The cooperation rate of air-conditioners was so low. One of the major reasons is outsourced installation. Air-conditioners are installed by the special installing teams. It is very common that the installing teams take back the old air-conditioners and recycle them by themselves. So it is difficult to control the outsourced installing team. It is necessary to solve this structural problem for improving the cooperation rate of air-conditioners.

iv) Personal computers and printers No computer or printer was collected in five computer shops for three month from October 2012. Unlike bulky e-wastes, the shops cannot offer taking back e-waste collection to their customers. The computer collection can be improved by offering higher voucher prices and more advertisem*nt of the existence of the Pilot Project.

v) Mobile phones The Pilot Project system worked well for mobile phones successfully. It is possible to expand the mobile phone collection further by inviting more mobile phone shops widely and advertising about the collection system more actively at the participating shops.

3. Results of activities ▌33 b) Other findings i) Retailers’ difficulties Retailers had two major difficulties. One is to do with the relationship with conventional recyclers, and the other is regarding the difficulty in securing the storage spaces. Due to the above two difficulties, some retailers wanted to go back to the conventional trade from the Pilot Project. It can be pointed out that asking the retailers to understand the significance of the Pilot Project is very important for getting their continuous cooperation.

ii) Difficulty in paper works Some retailers had a trouble in managing the receipts and the transportation slips. Each shop has its original paper work procedure and logistic system. The paper works should be designed so as to fit to their system.

c) Recommendations i) Succession of the Pilot Project The Pilot Project was designed by considering project sustainability. It does not need a lot of management cost. It is expected that MPPP, DOE and other related agencies will succeed the Pilot Project.

ii) More participation from retailers The number of the participating retailers is just over 20 shops as of 31 December 2012. More participation is needed for further e-waste collection. It is advisable to plan an expansion plan with increased number of participants in the future.

iii) Data accumulation and update of WTP curves The duration of the Pilot Project was only for several months and some retailers just joined in last October. Longer data accumulation is needed. By using more data, the WTP curves can be updated for further improvement.

4-2. To propose a future e-waste recycling plan in Penang Regarding expansion of the pilot project, targets in the future have been set by DOE and MPPP as follows. Targets (to be prepared after the 4th JCC meeting) Documents prepared in the course of implementation of the project such as the Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation and Standard Operation Structure can work as technical guides to implement the expansion and to achieve the targets.

4-3. To hold a workshop with stakeholders on 4.1 and 4.2 A workshop for reviewing the pilot project was held on 1st November 2012 having participation of the stakeholders such as manufactures, appliance retailers, recyclers (full

34 ▐ recovery facilities), NGOs and government institutions. Consecutively, the participants visited retail shops which participated in the pilot project. Some of photos of the events are shown below.

5-1. To prepare a program to strengthen the capacity of e-waste management of DOE, local authority and relevant organizations This was carried out when the Project began. The program was attached to the Inception Report as “Taskbook for Capacity Development”. The Taskbook was subject to revision by taking into consideration of outcomes arisen during the course of the Pilot Project implementation.

5-2. To conduct seminars or workshops on the method of survey / planning / implementation / evaluation / public awareness raising on e-waste management On 5th February 2013, a workshop was held having a participation of the stakeholders such as manufactures, recyclers (full recovery facilities), appliance retailer organizations and government institutions.

5-3. To conduct a study tour and/or a training course in Japan or other countries Training in Japan was carried out in February 2012 having targeted at the counterpart officials,

3. Results of activities ▌35 10 persons in total. In addition, other training in Japan for full recovery facility was carried out in September 2012 having 7 participants.

5-4. To conduct a training and/or a workshop for officers of DOE, local authority on e-waste management Taskforce meetings were held ten (10) times having participation of members from DOE HQ, DOE Penang and MPPP. In the course of meetings, technical issues on current situation surveys, pilot project planning and implementation, EPR policy formulation, etc. were presented and discussed. The counterparts deepened their knowledge.

5-5. To propose main elements for regulatory control on "Take-Back Scheme (extended producer responsibility)" for electronic and electrical equipment A document, Factor Analysis for an EPR System Based on the EPR Systems in Asian Counties, was prepared and presented in February 2013 in order DOE HQ to further carry on EPR policy formulation.

3.3 CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT Various opportunities of capacity development were provided during the course of the project such as joint site surveys, joint planning and implementation of the pilot project, Taskforce meetings, JCC meetings, seminars/workshops and trainings in Japan. Some of principal counterpart members were asked to make self-evaluation of understanding level on issues related to e-waste management. The self-evaluation was made three times; October 2011, March 2012 and October 2012. Only two counterparts made the self-evaluation at all occasions. Others made once or twice due to replacement or other reasons. Tables below show questions and results of the self-evaluation. There are 17 questions and understanding level is evaluated with point from 0 to 10. Then, 170 are the full marks. Many counterparts tended to give high scores on their understanding level at the beginning of the project. This might be brought from insufficient explanation of the questions to the counterparts. Therefore, it may be appropriate to assume the first result as reference. From the 2nd time, the score increased along with progress of the project.

Table 3-6. Questions of self-evaluation Understanding level No. Questions (Score 0 -10) (Self-evaluation) Do you understand what data should be collected for estimating the present and 1 future amount of waste to be discarded? 2 Do you understand what data should be collected for describing the present

36 ▐ Understanding level No. Questions (Score 0 -10) (Self-evaluation) e-waste flow? 3 Do you understand what criteria should be set for selecting pilot project areas? Do you understand what factor should be determined for designing an e-waste 4 collection system? 5 Do you understand how to involve stakeholders in a pilot project? 6 Do you understand what public awareness programs are effective? Do you understand what forms should be developed for collecting required data 7 for monitoring the pilot project and evaluation on it? Do you understand what factors should be planned for designing a pilot project by 8 considering what are "pilot" points? 9 Do you understand what factors should be planned for the future expanding plan? Do you understand how to estimate the future expected amount of collected 10 e-wastes? 11 Do you understand how to finance the future required cost? 12 Do you understand what and when to speak to the mass media? Do you understand what indexes are required to evaluate the e-waste collection 13 system? Do you understand how to review a pilot project by considering the future 14 possibility to expanding it? Do you understand how to apply the Penang model to other areas in Malaysia by 15 considering the similarity and differences? Do you understand what stakeholders should be invited for discussing cost 16 sharing and roles? Do you understand what documents should be developed for negotiating with the 17 stakeholders?

Table 3-7. Results of self-evaluation Counterpart 2011 Oct. 2012 Mar. 2012 Oct. A 104 89 94 B 120 - - C 126 - 106 D 98 119 130 E 104 - - F 132 - - G - 88 - H - 87 - I - - 87 J - - 131 K - - 87 Ave. 114 96 106

3. Results of activities ▌37 4. T RAINING IN J APAN Training in Japan was carried out between 18th and 29th February 2012. Ten persons from government institutions participated in the course. In addition, training in Japan for full recovery facility was carried out in September 2012. Two companies joined in the course.

4.1 1ST TRAINING IN JAPAN FOR POLICY MAKERS

(1) Participants No. Name Position 1 Ms. Datin Paduka Che Asmah Director, Hazardous Waste Substance Division, Department of IBRAHIM Environment 2 Mr. Khiruddin MOHAMAD IDRIS Principal Assistant Director, Hazardous Substance Division, Department of Environment 3 Mr. Mohd Zaidi Bin HASSAN Assistant Environmental Control Officer, Hazardous Substance Division, Department of Environment 4 Mr. Badlishah Bin AHMAD Head, Operation Division, Department of Environment, Penang 5 Mr. Mohd Fitri MOHD MOKHTAR Assistant Director, Operation Division, Department of Environment 6 Mr. WONG Kiong Kok Senior Principal Assistant Secretary, Policy Division, Ministry of Housing and Local Government 7 Mr. LIM Wei Urn Assistant Director, Environment and Natural Resources Economic Section, Economic Planning Unit 8 Mr. JUNUS Mubarak Director, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang 9 Mr. PITCHAY SEBASTIAN Xavier Assistant Director, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang 10 Mr. V MUTHU Arul Selven Senior Health Supervisor, Urban Services Department, Municipal Council of Penang

(2) Schedule Date a.m. p.m. Feb. 18 (Sat.) Departure for Japan Feb. 19 (Sun.) Arrival in Japan Feb. 20 (Mon.) 0900-1100 15:00-17:00 Briefing about the study tour Lecture “Home Appliance Recycling Law” by JICA by Mr. Shigeyoshi Sato, Ministry of the Environment 1100-1230 Lecture “Program Orientation” by Hideki Wada

Feb. 21 (Tue.) 1000-1200 1400-1500 Lecture “PC recycling based on Law for Courtesy visit to JICA Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resource” by Mr. Kazuhiro Yano, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

Feb. 22 (Wed.) 1000-1200 1400-1600

38 ▐ Date a.m. p.m. Lecture “Discussion on e-waste related laws” Site visit to EEE shops and mobile shops by Mr. Shin-ichi Sakuma, in Shinjuku Dynax Urban Environment Research Institute attended by Hideki Wada

Feb. 23 (Thu.) 1000-1200 1430-1600 Lecture “Operation of PC recycling” Site Visit to an e-waste recycling factory by Mr. Takashi Unno, PC 3R Promotion “Tokyo Eco-Recycle” Association in the east of Tokyo

Feb. 24 (Fri.) 1000-1200 1400-1500 Lecture “Mobile Phone Recycling” Site visit to a mobile phone recycling by Mr. Yasuo Yabashi, Telecommunications factory “Future Ecology” Carriers Association in the south-east of Tokyo

Feb. 25 (Sat.) 1000-1700 Lecture and Discussion “EPR Policy Trend in the Asian countries and regulation design in Malaysia” 1000-1100 Lecture 1: “EPR Policy Trend in the Asian countries” by Dr. Michikazu Kojima, Institute of Developing Economies 1100-1200 Lecture 2: “WEEE regulations in some Asian countries” by Dr. Rie Murakami 1300-1400 Presentation for discussion “What we discussed in Malaysia so far and some proposals for the next steps” by Mr. Hideki Wada 1400-1700 Discussion facilitated by Prof. Yoshifumi Fujii, Bunkyo University Feb. 26 (Sun.) Data/Information arrangement Feb. 27 (Mon.) 1000-1200 1330-1500 Lecture “Policy and services of solid waste Site Visit to Chuo Incineration plant management in Chuo-ku, Tokyo” by Ms. Noriko Sonoda, director of solid waste management department, Chuo-ku

Feb. 28 (Tue.) Preparation of presentations Presentations from the participants Feb. 29 (Wed.) Departure for Malaysia

4.2 2ND TRAINING IN JAPAN FOR RECYCLERS

(1) Participants No. Name Position Head of Operational Division/ 1 Mr. BADLISHAH Ahmad Department of Environment, Penang Deputy Managing Director/ 2 Mr. JOHN ASHOK TES-AMM(M) Sdn Bhd, Penang Maintenance Assistant Manager/ 3 Mr. VEILAYUTHAM Krishnan TES-AMM(M) Sdn Bhd, Penang Process Engineer/ 4 Mr. DINESH RAJAMANICKAM TES-AMM(M) Sdn Bhd, Penang Director Operation Department/ 5 Mr. B THINESH KUMAR Shan Poornam Metals Sdn Bhd, Penang Production Manager/ 6 Mr. RAJAMANICKAM ANNAMALAY Shan Poornam Metals Sdn Bhd, Penang Business Development Manager/ 7 Mr. SAW SHYH Shan Poornam Metals Sdn Bhd, Penang

4. Training in Japan ▌39 (2) Schedule Date a.m. p.m. Stay Sep. 8 (Sat.) Departure for Japan - Sep. 9 (Sun.) Arrival in Japan - Yokohama Sep. 10 (Mon.) 0900-1200 1300-1430 Kakogawa Briefing about the study tour Lecture “Program Orientation and by JICA E-waste Recycling System In at YIC Japan” by Mr. Hideki Wada at YIC Sep. 11 (Tue.) 0900-1200 1400-1630 Kakogawa Lecture “Home Electric Appliance Practice to dismantle home Dismantling Technique” electric appliances by Panasonic at PETEC at PETEC Sep. 12 (Wed.) (Mobilization) 1500-1630 Tokyo “Business Matching Workshop” at JICA HQ Sep. 13 (Thu.) (Mobilization) 13:00-1600 Tokyo Lecture and Practice “PC dismantling technique” by Kimura Metal Industry at Kimura Metal Industry Sep. 14 (Fri.) 1000-1200 1500-1700 Tokyo Lecture and Practice “Mobile Phone Evaluation Dismantling Technique” by JICA by Future Ecology at JICA HQ at Future Ecology Sep. 15 (Sat.) Departure for Malaysia - -

40 ▐ 5. C HALLENGES IN CONDUCTING THE P ROJECT

This chapter describes the challenges faced in conducting the Project.

(1) Looking forward from the starting point Any pilot project has to be planned based on the hypothesis to be proved in the pilot project. The hypothesis should be drawn from draft final pictures of future e-waste collection systems, even if they are quite tentative. So, the project was started from discussing what kind of collection system is appropriate and how the policy with EPR should be designed. The Team started the taskforce meeting from explaining the failure and success of the Japanese system. We discussed what kind of EPR policy can be introduced in Malaysia during the study trip in Japan. Of course, at this moment, before the regular discussion with manufactures in advance of the pilot project commencement, it should be very tentative one. Even it is very tentative, once we can share the hypothesis, we can explore the final solution by changing the hypothesis.

(2) Policy making process in the Japanese law systems In the study tour in Japan, the Expert Team tried to arrange the program so that the participants come to know the policy making process of the EPR laws used in Japan. Especially, the focal point was put on what and how the governments negotiated with related industries. The participants might have ideas how to consult with the related industries in Malaysia. However, it was not so easy to find the proper lecturers in the governments due to the personal rotation, even the lecturers tried to explain the policy making process. The Expert Team asked the lecturers to make interviews to the person who was in charge of the policy makings when the policies were discussed. Also, the Expert Team tried to invite the lecturers from the industrial sides and the consultants involved the policy makings.

(3) Cooperation from the academic community The e-waste issues are shared well among the academics. There are several academics to be nominated as the pioneers. In the Project, such academics were involved in every chance as the outer resources. The academics do not have any experiences to introduce policies practically; however, they have a lot of information regarding e-waste regulations introduced in several countries. By comparing the policies in several countries, they have clear ideas what kinds of policies are appropriate and what should not be done with their academic backgrounds. This was very effective to consider the policy from the deeper point of view.

5. Challenges in conducting the Project ▌41 (4) Involvement of stakeholders Participation of stakeholders is crucial for establishment of proper e-waste management such as residents, business entities, EEE retailers, EEE manufactures, recovery facilities and public institutions. However, it is difficult in a practical sense to find right persons for this purpose. The Project has strategically tried to search such right persons by means of visiting them personally or inviting them to seminars/workshops. Then, the Project has kept in contact with those who showed intention to be involved. The Project tried to formulate two working groups. One consists of mainly the EEE retailers and the recovery facilities in Penang. The other is composed of mainly mega-manufactures. The members were officially involved in planning and implementing the Pilot Project, and in discussing regulation regarding EPR, etc.

(5) Utilization of ITs for the communication among the members of the Project The Malaysian counterpart consists of three institutions, i.e., DOE HQ, DOE Penang and MPPP. Each institution has individual mandate. Their offices are located in different sites. And, they play respective roles in the Project. As e-waste management can function properly only by involving various actors such as law makers, operators and supervisors, an appropriate coordination of the Malaysian side is quite important. However, it is also true to maintain close communication and to share information among different actors be difficult. In order to overcome this challenge, a tool of information and communication technology has been utilized among members of the counterpart and JICA Expert Team. Reports, seminar presentation materials and other information are stored in the share folder and each member can access these whenever they need. The figure shows an image of the share folder on the computer screen.

42 ▐ (6) Public relations The project has developed a website to communicate with the public. The website has a title of “Penang E-waste Project.” The URL is http://weeepenang.blogspot.com/. The website records activities of the Project. The visitors can follow the project process through the internet. The figure shows an image of the website.

The website was visited by 7066 persons by Feb. 21, 2013. Many visitors came from India, Thailand, Australia and Vietnam where e-waste policies are discussed, besides Japan, Malaysia and Singapore in which many related persons to the Pilot are based.

Number of Country of visitors Component rate (%) Visitors Malaysia 4156 63 Japan 1221 19 Singapore 322 5 United States 270 4 India 186 3 United Kingdom 100 2 Luxembourg 98 1 Thailand 85 1 Australia 76 1 Vietnam 53 1 Total 6567 100 In addition to the website, the Project tried to utilize mass media. The Team leader, Wada, appeared in local newspapers several times. It gave synergy effect on increase of visitor number to the website.

5. Challenges in conducting the Project ▌43 6. R ECOMMENDATIONS FOR ATTAINING THE O VERALL G OAL The overall goal of the Project is

 A proper collection, segregation and transportation programs / system for recycling e-waste generated from households are implemented nationwide; and the important assumption for achieving the overall goal is set as

 E-waste collection, segregation and transportation system from households in Malaysia is institutionalized. As for the latter assumption, as described in “Annex VIII. Factor Analysis for an EPR System based on the EPR Systems in Asian Countries”, it can be proposed that any guideline which promotes systems with manufactures initiatives with the following principles is necessary.

 Primary responsibility should be taken by households who discard e-waste;  Coordination on an intersectorial group meeting is one of the important roles of the governmental sector;  Setting of target collection rates which are responsible by manufactures is a must; and  Manufactures can participate in the e-waste collection voluntarily.

Under the enforcement of the guideline, it is advisable that local “E-waste Alam Alliance” meetings which played an important role in the Pilot Project are to be established. Also, the centralized alliance is necessary. This central alliance can coordinate the local alliance through discussions with the manufactures.

44 ▐ 7. J OINT C OORDINATION C OMMITTEE M EETINGS Joint Coordination Committee Meetings were held 4 times during the course of the project as follows.

 1st Meeting on 3rd November 2011 at DOE Putrajaya  2nd Meeting on 31st May 2012 at MPPP Penang  3rd Meeting on 2nd November 2012 at DOE Putrajaya  4th Meeting on 4th February 2013 at DOE Putrajaya

Meeting Minutes are presented hereinafter.

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings ▌45 Meeting Minutes of the 1st Meeting

46 ▐

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings ▌47 Meeting Minutes of the 2nd Meeting

48 ▐

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings ▌49 Meeting Minutes of the 3rd Meeting

50 ▐ Meeting Minutes of the 4th Meeting

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings ▌51

52 ▐

7. Joint Coordination Committee Meetings ▌53

54 ▐

Annex I

Current Situation of Waste Management

Contents

Annex I 1

1. Policies in the central governments 1 1.1 TENTH MALAYSIA PLAN 2011-2015 1

1.2 RELATED MINISTRIES 1

1.3 LAWS/REGULATIONS 2

1.4 ORGANIZATION 2

1.5 RECENT POLICIES 7

2. Municipal solid waste management system in Penang Island 9 2.1 POPULATION, NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RGDP IN PENANG

ISLAND 9

2.2 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 10

3. E-waste recycling in Penang Island 15 3.1 OVERALL VIEW OF E-WASTE RECYCLING 15

3.2 DISCHARGE/COLLECTION 15

3.3 SECONDHAND SHOP/JUNKSHOP 18

3.4 LARGE RECYCLER/MIDDLEMAN 19

3.5 LICENSED RECOVERY FACILITIES 19

Abbreviations

3Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons DOE Department of Environment e-waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste GRDP Gross Regional Domestic Product JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency MHLG Ministry of Housing and Local Government MONRE Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment MPPP Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (Municipal Council of Penang Island) MPSP Majlis Perbandaran Seberang Prai (Municipal Council of Seberang Prai) NSWMD National Solid Waste Management Department, MHLG PPSPPA Perbadanan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembembersihan Awam (Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Corporation) SW Scheduled Waste SWM Solid Waste Management T/S Transfer Station

1. P OLICIES IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS

1.1 TENTH MALAYSIA PLAN 2011-2015 "Tenth Malaysia Plan 2011-2015" provides the following items regarding solid waste management. Among them, the last one related to take back systems is paid attention as one of the background of this project.

 Transference of the responsibility on SWM from the local government to the federal governments (federalization)  Full enforcement of “Solid Waste Management Act 2007”  Expansion of waste collection are by year 2015 to 3.7 million households  Closure or rehabilitation of 112 unsanitary disposal sites by year 2015  Introduction of waste collection with segregation for households  Achievement of the recycling target of 25% from households by year 2015  Improvement in waste collection frequency  Introduction of door-to-door collection by using 120 liter containers  Promotion of construction of transfer station, sanitary landfill, material recovery facilities (MRF)  Improvement of SWM system by participating from manufactures in promotion of 3Rs and development of take back systems

1.2 RELATED MINISTRIES The related Ministries to SWM are 1) Department of Environment (DOE), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) and 2) National Solid Waste Management Department (NSWMD), Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG).

(1) DOE DOE is responsible for “Scheduled Waste” (SW) including e-waste and licensing to SWM/recycling facilities regarding Scheduled Wastes. DOE mainly regulates the industrial sector which discards SWs, however wastes classified as a SW are responsible by DOE even if it was discarded by a household, where SWs are specified by the types of wastes, not by the types of generations.

(2) NSWMD NSWMD is responsible to wastes other than SWs, especially municipal waste from households and commercial entities.

1. Policies in the central governments ▌1 1.3 LAWS/REGULATIONS

(1) Environmental Quality Act 1974 This is the basic law for environmental conservation including solid waste management. This law has the regulations, rules and orders. Scheduled Wastes are provided the regulation under this law.

(2) Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulation (P.U.(A)294/2005) In 2005, the regulation under Environmental Quality Act was enacted and e-wastes were added in the list of Scheduled Waste with the code of SW110.

(3) Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 This law targets the waste other than Schedule Waste. The major contents are 1) the management body, 2) licensing to SWM facilities and 3) disposal fees. Among the provisions, the highlight is the provision of a “Corporation” which is to cooperate in developing policies and implementing the policies. The major present mission of the Corporation is to control the concessionaires for collection of municipal solid waste. So far, eight states accepted the Act out of eleven states and two federal territories in the Malay Peninsula. Remaining five states including State of Penang have not accepted.

1.4 ORGANIZATION

(1) DOE “Hazardous Substance Division” under “Deputy Director General (Operation)” is responsible for the control of Scheduled Wastes, as shown in Figure 1-1. DOE has 15 state offices. One of them is the state office of Penang, whose organization is shown in Figure 1-2. “Scheduled Waste Unit” is responsible for the Scheduled Waste. The number of staff of the unit is five. The mandates of the unit are

 To process license of the schedule waste recovery/recycling facilities,  To audit these recovery/recycling facilities,  To take legal action if there is any incompliances arise,  To enter data inventory of schedule waste, and  To investigate illegal dumping of schedule waste case.

2 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management Director General

Deputy Director Deputy Director General General (Development) (Operational)

Water and Marine Administrative and Assessment Division Legal Unit Division Finance Division

Strategic Communication Hazardous Substance Division Division

Environmental Institute of Malaysia Enforcement Division (EiMAS)

Information Technology Division Air Division

Figure 1-1. Organization chart of Department of Environment Source: Website of Department of Environment (http://www.doe.gov.my/portal/jabatan/carta-organisasi/)(available as of 31 Mar. 2012)

1. Policies in the central governments ▌3 Department of Environment, Penang

Administration Development Division Operation Division Bayan Lepas Branch Division (19) (15) (41) Office (10)

Administrative and Environment Impact Enforcement Unit Enforcement Unit Finance (19) Assessment (6) (16) (6)

Site Evaluation Unit Schedule Waste Complaint Unit (4) (3) Unit (5)

Written Approval Unit (3) Complaint Unit (7)

Awareness and Education Unit (3) Monitoring Unit (3)

Mobile Sources Unit (7)

Prosecution Unit (3)

Figure 1-2. Organization chart of the state office of DOE Penang Source: DOE Penang

Table 1-1. Mandates of the state office of DOE Penang Division Unit Mandate Administration Administrative and - To order and make payment to the contractor, who provide the new furniture, cleaning service and drinking water Division Finance - To make sure all DOE Penang staff have basic amenities - To provide service of cleaning ICT equipment - To make payment that claims by DOE Officer - To administer the files in the files room - To manage storage area of valuable assets - To take care of the department vehicles - To manage personnel data of DOE staff Development Environment - To empower the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment after due consultation - To prescribe any activity which may have significant environmental impact as a prescribed Division Impact activity - The Project Proponent of a Prescribed Activity has to submit a report (the EIA) to the Assessment Director General of Environmental Quality before approval for the proposed activity is granted by the relevant approving authority - The EIA report must be in accordance with the guidelines issued by the DOE contain an assessment of the impact of the Prescribed Activity on the environment and detail the

4 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management Division Unit Mandate proposed measures that shall be instituted to prevent, reduce or control adverse impacts on the environment. DOE have to evaluate and approve the EIA report first, before any development can initiate Site Evaluation - The criteria for selecting a new site normally include engineering, environmental and economic aspects Unit - To investigate the suitability through site visits and analysis of existing information - Measures to protect the environment and resolve socio economic issues - DOE have to evaluate and approve the propose site first, before any development can be build Written Approval - Any premises that want to install new chimneys, fuel burning equipment and/or any outlet that can discharge air impurities into the air and/or discharge industrial effluent have to Unit submit their proposal for DOE to evaluate the efficiency of the air pollution control equipment or waste water treatment plan. - To get DOE approval first before they can install air pollution control equipment and/or waste treatment plan. Awareness and - To expose the public on the importance of environmental awareness - To develop positive and responsible attitude and instill love to the environment and Education Unit appreciate the beauty of nature - To develop attitude and cooperation among public in environmental conservation and sustainability - To enable the public to enjoy recreational activities on the environment Operation Enforcement Unit - To ensure all industries or premises comply with Environmental Quality Act 1974 - To observe any black smoke emit from chimney and do the classification base on ringlet Division matt chart, finally take legal action if it is very bad to the environment or issuing notice to the premises to take remedial action - To investigate immediately if there any complaint by the media or public to specific factory that polluted the environment Schedule Waste - To process license of the schedule waste recovery/recycling facilities annually - To audit these recovery/recycling facilities so that they follow the license conditions and Unit EQA 1974 - To take legal action if there is any incompliances arise - To enter data inventory of schedule waste generated by each factories in Penang and data of SW transported to recycling/recovery facilities - To investigate illegal dumping of schedule waste case Complaint Unit - To investigate complaint that receive from media, public, VIP and other agencies related to the pollution of the environment in 24 hours - To take action against polluter within 7 days and report to DOE headquarters immediately - To monitor any open burning case by vehicle or air surveillance during haze period or air pollution index exceeding 100 - To investigate oil spill occurrence within Malaysian water and exclusive economic zone Monitoring Unit - To establish baselines and detect water quality changes in river water and groundwater quality - To identifying of pollution sources - Monitoring programme of marine water quality involves in-situ measurements of parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity, turbidity and tar balls, and laboratory analyses of parameters such as Escherichia coli, oil and grease, total suspended solids, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury - To assist in the management of the recreational waters and marine ecosystem Mobile Sources - To measure smoke density emit from diesel vehicle - To measure gaseous pollutant emit from petrol vehicle Unit - To measure noise generated by motorcycle - To take legal action if any incompliance detected Prosecution Unit - To check all investigation paper prepare by other DOE officer - To go to the court and prosecute the person who polluted the environment - To manage evidence collected from the investigation site Bayan Lepas Enforcement Unit - To ensure all industries or premises comply with Environmental Quality Act 1974 - To observe any black smoke emit from chimney and do the classification base on ringlet Branch Office matt chart, finally take legal action if it is very bad to the environment or issuing notice to the premises to take remedial action - To investigate immediately if there any complaint by the media or public to specific factory that polluted the environment Complaint Unit - To investigate complaint that receive from media, public, VIP and other agencies related to the pollution of the environment in 24 hours - To take action against polluter within 7 days and report to DOE headquarters immediately - To monitor any open burning case by vehicle or air surveillance during haze period or air pollution index exceeding 100

1. Policies in the central governments ▌5 Division Unit Mandate - To investigate oil spill occurrence within Malaysian water and exclusive economic zone Source: DOE Penang

(2) NSWMD

a) Organization structure Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) has six departments and three related organizations at the department level. One of the departments is NSWMD which is responsible for municipal solid waste management. One new organization at the department level is “Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation” which is mainly responsible for concessionaires for municipal waste collection services. The name of the corporation is “Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Corporation” (Perbadanan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembembersihan Awam) (PPSPPA).

b) Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Corporation (PPSPPA)1 PPSPPA was established in 2008 based on “Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007”. The organization structure is shown in the following figure. PPSPPA is preparing its offices in States. So far, eleven states including the federal territories have already the offices. Three states out of eleven states are the ones which will accept the Law soon. The State of Penang has not accepted the Law yet, so the office has not established.

1 Source: JICA Malaysia Office: Report (draft) on the study on the recent solid waste management policies (2012)

6 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management

Figure 1-3. Organization structure of Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Corporation (PPSPPA) Source: Website of MHLG (http://www.kpkt.gov.my/carta/chart.html)(available on 31 Mar. 2012)

1.5 RECENT POLICIES

(1) DOE

a) Introduction of control of e-waste As already mentioned above, “Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulation (P.U.(A)294/2005)” added e-waste in the list of Scheduled Wastes. The definition of e-wastes is:

 SW110: Waste from electrical and electronic assemblies containing components such as accumulators, mercury-switches, glass from cathode-ray tubes and other activated glass or polychlorinated biphenyl-capacitors, or contaminated with cadmium, mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, lithium, silver, manganese or polychlorinated biphenyl.

1. Policies in the central governments ▌7 b) Recycling facility for e-waste Since year 2005, DOE licensed 133 partial recovery facilities and 21 full recovery facilities.2 However, the technical standards among the facilities vary. It is recognized that the technical standards regarding partial/full recovery facilities have to be improved. Also, the facilities have to be equipped with the equipment for e-waste recycling from households such as lead contained glass cutter and CFCs recovery facilities, while the facilities are functioned for industrial e-wastes.

Table 1-2. Number of partial/full recovery facilities for e-waste in Malaysia (as of 31 Mar. 2012) State Partial recovery facility Full recovery facility Total Total 133 21 158 Pulau Pinang 38 7 46 Johor 15 4 19 Kedah 16 1 16 Melaka 14 3 17 Negeri Sembilan 5 2 11 Perak 5 0 5 Sarawak 7 0 7 Selangor 25 4 29 W.P. Kuala Lumpur 8 0 8 Source: List of scheduled waste contractors in Malaysia (Website of DOE) http://www.doe.gov.my/portal/hazardous-substances-2/hazardous-substances-list-of-contractor/senarai-kontraktor-pembuangan-berjadual- malaysia-2011-2012/attachment/b1-7/ (available on 31 Mar. 2011)

(2) MHLG As already mentioned, MHLG is now enforcing Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 by establishing the state office of PPSPA for federalizing solid waste management. At the same time, MHLG is being introducing what is called as “Two plus One” collection system. In this system, two days will be assigned for organic waste collection and one day for recyclables. Also, distribution of certain size of container for door-to-door collection has been started in some states. It is a problem if models to be developed in Penang Island could not be a model for other states, because the situations in Penang Island could be different from other states due to the un-acceptance with the Act. According to the discussion with MPPP directors and officials, models developed in Penang Island could be used in other areas, because the waste collection system in Penang Island is rather advanced than other areas which are catching up to the Penang Island standard.

2 According to DOE Penang, there is another full recovery facilities newly licensed. So the total number of full recovery facilities in Penang Island is eight.

8 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management 2. M UNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN P ENANG I SLAND

2.1 POPULATION, NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RGDP IN PENANG ISLAND

(1) Population Table below shows population data in Penang Island, Penang State and Whole Malaysia.

Table 2-1. Population Year Penang Island Penang State Whole Malaysia 1991 518,478 1,064,166 17,563,420 2000 575,498 1,231,209 22,198,276 2010 704,376 1,520,143 27,565,821 Source: Department of Statistics, Preliminary Country Report 2010

(2) Households Table below shows Number of Households in Penang Island, Penang State and Whole Malaysia.

Table 2-2. Number of Households Year Penang Island Penang State Whole Malaysia 1991 104,359 212,663 3,566,859 2000 137,272 280,903 4,801,835 2010 189,829 385,658 6,396,174 Source: Department of Statistics, Preliminary Country Report 2010

(3) Gross regional domestic product Table below shows Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of Penang State and Gross Domestic Product of the country. The GRDP per capita can be calculated as 31,000 in Penang State and 20,000 in Malaysia.

Table 2-3. Regional Gross Domestic Product Unit: Million RM Year Penang State Whole Malaysia 1990 - 119,081 1991 - 135,124 1992 - 150,682 1993 - 172,194

2. Municipal solid waste management system in Penang Island ▌9 Year Penang State Whole Malaysia 1994 - 195,461 1995 - 222,473 1996 - - 1997 - 281,795 1998 - - 1999 - - 2000 - 343,215 2001 - 334,404 2002 - 362,012 2003 - 398,017 2004 - 449,609 2005 37,780 449,251 2006 41,721 475,525 2007 44,695 506,342 2008 47,307 530,684 2009 42,217 522,001 2010 46,455 559,554 Source: Department of Statistics, GDP by State 2010

2.2 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

(1) Overall view of municipal solid waste management in Penang Island In 2010, approximately 249,000 ton of waste was collected in Penang Island. The amount includes both ordinal municipal waste (approx. 220,000 ton) and construction waste (approx. 28,000 ton). The amount of waste 220,000 corresponds to 856 gram per capita per day. Technical flow of the ordinal municipal solid waste consists of collection, transfer, transport and final disposal. Collection is conducted by 7 contractors and MPPP. Waste collected is carried to Ampang Jajar Transfer Station (T/S) located in the mainland. After the reloading at the T/S, waste is transported to Pulau Burung Landfill which receives municipal waste from MPPP and MPSP. The construction waste is mainly transported by construction companies’ vehicles to Jelutong Landfill located in the Island. The following figure shows locations of the municipal solid waste management facilities mentioned above.

10 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management

Figure 2-1. Location Map of Municipal Solid Waste Facilities

(2) Recycling Various recycling activities are carried out by the public sector and the private sector. Waste bins for recyclable materials are seen at government offices, shopping centers, etc. Public awareness on recycling seems higher compared with other developing countries. Systematic recycling, in other words separated collection system, has not yet been applied for households and commercial entities. MPPP provides two types of collection service. One is for regular waste such as kitchen waste, the other one is for bulky waste. Recycling is carried out by waste collectors, building maintenance workers, etc. Recyclable materials are often found during the bulky waste collection service. Waste collectors collect and sell them to buyers. Building maintenance workers also find recyclable materials at waste storage. Then, they call buyers and sell the materials to buyers. MPPP published “The Recycling Wheel of Penang - a directory of recycling communities, agents, and buyers in Penang,” in 2005. The book provides information of stakeholders in recycling in Penang in order for them to know each other for facilitating recycling activities. The stakeholders are churches, NGOs, residents’ associations, hospitals, schools and buyers.

2. Municipal solid waste management system in Penang Island ▌11 (3) Collection/transportation

a) Zoning Penang Island is divided into eight (8) zones in regard to the municipal solid waste collection service. There are eight (8) actors in the service, i.e., seven (7) contractors and MPPP itself. Each actor takes charge of one (1) zone.

b) Collection for regular waste Since July 2011, the waste collection service is carried out at night. This is due to operation schedule of Ampang Jajar Transfer Station; it deals with waste from MPSP in the daytime and waste from MPPP in the nighttime. Detached houses are served with regular waste collection service at three (3) days a week; apartments are six (6) days a week from Monday to Saturday; and commercials are every day. MPPP has a system to correspond to residents’ complaints about waste services. It is called “Complain Line” operated 24 hours a day.

c) Collection for bulky waste Bulky waste collection service has started in 2007. This service targets waste from houses and commercials that are difficult to be collected by the regular service such as furniture, e-waste, etc. In addition to those waste, pruning waste is also collected by this service.

(4) Transfer and transport Waste collected by the regular waste collection service is carried to Ampang Jajar Transfer Station that is located in the mainland. The current transfer and transport system has started in July 2011. Until that moment, waste was transported by barge to the mainland. The T/S receives waste from MPSP during the day and from MPPP during the night. According to an operator of the T/S, it receives approximately 960 ton of waste per day; 380 ton/day from MPSP and 580 ton/day from MPPP. Compaction method is applied to the T/S. One container after compaction can contain approximately 13 to 14 ton of waste. One trailer usually carries two containers, that is approx. 26 to 28 ton of waste, to Pulau Burung Landfill. The T/S is operated by a private company which also operates the landfill.

12 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management

Figure 2-2. Ampang Jajar Tranfer Station

(5) Landfill

a) Pulau Burung Landfill (municipal solid waste) Municipal solid waste is disposed of in Pulau Burung Landfill that is located in Seberang Perai Selatan in the mainland, approximately 40 minutes away from Ampang Jajar Transfer Statoin. The landfill operation commenced in February 2002. Phase I was closed in July 2007. As of October 2011, the operation is carried out at Phase II. It is said that the remaining life period is approximately 30 years. Around 30 waste pickers were working at the site in October 2011 when the Task Force visited. Their target materials were plastics and aluminum. E-waste could not be seen at the site. The land is owned by MPSP and the operation is carried out by the private company that operates the T/S.

Figure 2-3. Pulau Burung Landfill (municipal solid waste)

2. Municipal solid waste management system in Penang Island ▌13 b) Jelutong Landfill (construction and bulky wastes) Construction and bulky wastes are disposed of in Jelutong Landfill that is located in Penang Island and close to the Penang Bridge. Around 10 waste-pickers were found in October 2011 when the Task Force visited. They dealt with woods, metals, etc. used for construction. No e-waste found at the site at that moment. This landfill is operated by MPPP.

Figure 2-4. Jelutong Landfill (construction and bulky wastes)

14 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management 3. E- WASTE RECYCLING IN P ENANG I SLAND

3.1 OVERALL VIEW OF E-WASTE RECYCLING The e-waste flow in Malaysia can be illustrated bellow.

Informal Secondhand Collector Shop

Residents Repair/ Reverse to EEE Transforming shops Shop Partial Other Area Recovery Plant Voluntary Or Exported collection by Junk shop Community/ School Illegal Full Recovery Dumping Plant

E-waste Collection Center (MPPP)

Municipal waste Transfer Landfill management station service

Figure 3-1. Prototype of e-waste flow

3.2 DISCHARGE/COLLECTION There are several ways of discharging/collecting e-waste from households and commercials.

(1) Taking to recycling program

a) Computer recycling by MPPP Computer Recycling Program has been conducted since 2005 by MPPP, DEL, Sunshine, PEWOG and IRM targeting computer and its peripheral device such as monitor, printer, etc. There are twelve collection centers. Citizens bring the target materials to the collection centers. Those can be converted into coupon ticket at a rate of RM 0.50/kg. The coupon can be used at Sunshine shopping centers.

3. E-waste recycling in Penang Island ▌15

Figure 3-2. Computer recycling program by MPPP, DELL, Sunshine, IRM and PEWOG

b) Computer recycling by Penang State Another recycling program targeting e-waste regarding information and communication such as PC, mobile phone, etc. was found at a shopping center “Prangin Mall” where many ICT shops do their business. Citizens by themselves brought their e-waste to the program. According to counterpart personnel, this program was initiated by the Penang State Government.

Figure 3-3. E-waste recycling program at Prangin Mall

(2) Taking to small recyclers There are several small recyclers in the city. Citizens by themselves, recyclable material collectors and others bring their e-waste to those recyclers. One small recycler told the Task Force that he receives e-waste from hotel/building maintenance companies. When hotels/offices replace old electric appliances with new ones, old ones become e-wastes. Then, those maintenance companies often take them to the small recyclers. Some of same type refrigerators from a hotel were found at his place, when the

16 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management Taskforce visited him Other small recycler received newspapers from a citizen, when the Task Force visited. The recycler also receives e-waste. According to the recycler, small e-waste such as CD player, DVD recorder, etc., are not repaired due to their little economic values. However, there are people who buy such small e-waste for repair and reuse. They are usually foreigners who come to work for construction and other labor-intensive businesses.

Figure 3-4. Small recycler

(3) Taking to repair shops Repair shops are one of destination of e-waste from households and commercials, however only a little amount of e-waste seems to go there. The repair shop to which the Task Force visited is licensed by large manufactures such as SHARP, SANYO, PHILIPS, etc. The shop chiefly repairs their appliances under warranty. According to the repair shop, repair work is not economically feasible due to high labor cost. People prefer buying new one to repairing one out of warranty these days.

Figure 3-5. Repair shop

3. E-waste recycling in Penang Island ▌17 (4) Trade-in It seems common for people in Penang to ask for trade-in when buying new one. A retailer that deals with home appliances such as refrigerators, air-conditioners, washing machines, etc. told the Task Force that approximately 60 % of customers ask trade-in. However, most of appliances traded in are not repaired by scrapped.

Figure 3-6. Traded in appliances at a retail shop

(5) Discharging as bulky waste MPPP provides bulky waste collection service. Penang people often discard e-waste as bulky waste. Waste collectors take the e-waste to recyclers. According to a person who maintains a waste storage of apartment, he calls recycler when he found recyclable materials such as paper, cardboard, e-waste, etc. Then, he sells the materials to the recycler.

(6) Discharging as regular waste Small size appliances may be discarded as regular waste. However, amount of such discarded appliances seems to be small, as the recycling market of e-waste is active in Penang.

3.3 SECONDHAND SHOP/JUNKSHOP Many street stalls are in business in an area next to City Stadium. Some of stalls sell second hand audio apparatus, second hand mobile phones, etc.

18 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management

Figure 3-7. Secondhand shop and Junkshop

3.4 LARGE RECYCLER/MIDDLEMAN There seem to be a certain number of large recycler/middlemen according to interviews from the small recycler, the retailer, licensed recovery facility, etc. They buy recyclables from the small recycler and/or others, then, sell them to the licensed recovery facilities and/or others. Parts after dismantling have much value than products before dismantling. The Task Force visited some of large recyclers. One of them chiefly targets ferrous metal. Other largely deals with plastics. In addition to those materials, some of e-wastes were present at their stock yards.

Figure 3-8. Large recycler

3.5 LICENSED RECOVERY FACILITIES Recovery facilities licensed by DOE are important actors in realizing appropriate e-waste recycling. The Task Force visited two full recovery facilities and one partial recovery facility in October 2011. Those are located in Bukit Minyak Industrial Park in mainland. Their

3. E-waste recycling in Penang Island ▌19 customers are largely manufacturing companies. They deal with recyclable materials generated from production processes of those companies. Although e-waste generated from households and commercials are very little for them, they showed their interest in being involved in recycling of such e-waste. One of them, Reclaimtek, is actually involved in the Computer Recycling Program as a member of IRM Group. Other one, Ming Engineering Plastic, mentioned that they participate in an e-waste recycling program in other state from a view point of corporate social responsibility, CSR.

Figure 3-9. Location of Bukit Minyak Industrial Park

20 ▐Annex I. Current Situation of Waste Management

Annex I I

E-waste flow analysis

Contents

Annex II 1

1. Preconditions and basic procedure 1 1.1 PRECONDITIONS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DISCARDED E-WASTE 1 1.2 PROCEDURE TO ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF E-WASTE AND E-WASTE FLOW MODEL 1

2. Estimation according to the procedure 4 2.1 DOMESTIC SUPPLY 4 2.2 IMPORTED SECONDHAND PRODUCTS 9 2.3 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF E-WASTE PER UNIT 9 2.4 WEIGHT OF DOMESTIC SUPPLY 9 2.5 AVERAGE AGE OF E-WASTE AND DISCARDING DISTRIBUTION 10 2.6 WEIGHT OF DISCARDED E-WASTE 11 2.7 RATE OF REPAIRED E-WASTE 11 2.8 STOCK AND E-WASTE SENT TO MATERIAL RECOVERY 12 2.9 E-WASTE FLOW 14

3. Substance flow model for policy evaluation 17 3.1 INDEXES FOR POLICY EVALUATION 17 3.2 DATA PREPARATION 17 3.3 TREND OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND PRECIOUS METALS 18 3.4 TREND OF THREE INDEXES 20

4. Other considerations 22 4.1 CONSIDERATION TO THE DEAD STORAGE OF BROKEN EEE IN HOUSEHOLDS 22 4.2 CONSIDERATION TO THE LIFETIME OF NON-CRT DISPLAY 22 4.3 CONSIDERATION TO THE ORPHAN PERSONAL COMPUTERS 23 4.4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON THE IMPORTATION OF SECONDHAND PERSONAL COMPUTERS 24 4.5 CONSIDERATION TO THE E-WASTE FROM BUSINESS ENTITIES 25

Abbreviations

CRT Cathode Ray Tube DOE Department of Environment DOS Department of Statistics EEE Electrical and Electronic Equipment e-waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste GDP Gross Domestic Products IT Information Technology JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency LCD Liquid Crystal Display MFA Material Flow Analysis MPPP Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (Municipal Council of Penang Island) PC Personal Computer PCB Print Circuit Board SFA Substance Flow Analysis TV Television

1. P RECONDITIONS AND BASIC PROCEDURE

1.1 PRECONDITIONS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DISCARDED E-WASTE

(1) Target e-wastes In this study, the following six items were targeted by considering the dominancy, hazardousness, precious metals concentration and other factors shown in the inception report.

- Television set (CRT and non-CRT) - Refrigerator - Washing machine - Air-conditioner - Personal computer (desktop with CRT, desktop with non-CRT and laptop) - Mobile phone

(2) Study year - As of 2011

(3) Estimation duration - From year 2005 to up to 2025 For calculating these data between the year 2005 to 2025, data as much as possible were considered. The data since 1990 were used for the calculation.

1.2 PROCEDURE TO ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF E-WASTE AND E-WASTE FLOW MODEL

(1) Basic procedure to estimate the amount of e-waste The amount of discarded e-waste is estimated based on the domestic supply of e-waste in each year. In this project, the data were collected from year 1990 up to the present, considering that the data duration should be longer enough than the average ages of e-waste. The amount of e-waste can be calculated by considering the domestic supplies and the discarding distributions. The discarding distributions can be defined by the average ages of e-waste as the parameters. The number of discarded e-waste can be converted to weight by using the weight of each EEE. The weight of e-waste is divided into two parts: one is e-waste returned to the consumers after repaired, and another one is e-waste from which materials are recovered in the downstream of the e-waste stream.

1. Preconditions and basic procedure ▌1 Imported Domestic secondhand supply products year 1990 - 2010

Average weight of e- waste per unit Weight of domestic supply Average age of e-waste and Questionnaire survey discarding E-waste flow survey distribution Weight of discarded e- waste Rate of repaired e- waste

Weight of Weight of Weight of repaired e- disposed e- stock waste waste

Disposal parameters

Weight of e- waste on each path in stream

Figure 1-1. Procedure to estimate the amount of e-waste

(2) E-waste flow model The calculated amounts of e-waste every year will be inputted to e-waste flow model shown in Figure 1-2. Based on our survey, the generated e-wastes are sent to 1) full recovery recyclers, 2) various recyclers and 3) scrap dealers, where the path 2) is the major one. The amounts of e-waste on these three paths are given by the parameters: p1, p2 and p3. The various recyclers include the repair shops which repair e-wastes and sell to the customers.

2 ▌ The rate of repaired e-waste is given as the parameter r. The parameters q1 and q2 show the rates sent from various recyclers to full recovery recyclers and scrap dealers respectively.

Full Recovery r Facility

p1 q1

E-waste p2 Conventional Generator Recycler

p3 q2

Dealer

Conventional recyclers’ Switching Model

Figure 1-2. E-waste flow model for policy evaluation

1. Preconditions and basic procedure ▌3 2. E STIMATION ACCORDING TO THE PROCEDURE

2.1 DOMESTIC SUPPLY

(1) Domestic supply in whole Malaysia The data of domestic supply to whole Malaysia were supplied by DOS as follows. The future projection was conducted by considering the calculated stock of EEE units (explained in 2.8). Consideration of the stock in terms of unit gives us the prevalence rate of the EEE.

45,000,000

40,000,000

35,000,000

30,000,000 MobilePhone PC(NB) 25,000,000 PC(DT&LCD) PC(DT&CRT) (unit) 20,000,000 AirConditioner WashingMachine 15,000,000 Refrigerator TV(nonCRT) TV(CRT) 10,000,000

5,000,000

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-1. Domestic supply to whole Malaysia in terms of number of units (Source) The past and future data was regressed by the data from Department of Statistics.

(2) Conversion to Penang Island The domestic supply to Penang Island was converted by the following equation by considering the economic situation in Penang Island.

- = = 퐺𝐺𝐺 = 퐷퐷푚 퐺퐺� 퐷퐷푚 �푃푃푃𝑃 퐺𝐺𝐺 푚 푝푝 푚 푝푝 퐺𝐺퐺 퐷퐷퐷퐷where 푃푃푃 ∗ 푃푃푃 ∗ 퐺퐺퐺 푃푃푃 ∗ 푃푃푃 ∗ �푃푃푃� 퐷퐷퐷 ∗ 퐺𝐺퐺 - :

퐷퐷 퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷 �푠𝑠푠푠

4 ▌ - : - : 퐺퐺 퐺𝐺 𝑝푝 �푐𝑐�푐 - : 퐺𝐺 퐺𝐺𝐺 퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷퐷 푃𝑃푃𝑃𝑃 - : 푃푃푃 푃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃푃 - : �푠푠푠�푠 𝑝 푃�푃�푃푃 퐼𝐼𝐼� However, the data of is not available and the data of GDP of Penang State is only �푠푠푠�푠 � 푀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 available. So, assuming that the GDP capita of Penang Island is the same as the GDP capita of 퐺𝐺푝 Penang State, was calculated by

퐷퐷푝 - = = 퐺𝐺𝐺 퐺𝐺푝푝 푃푃푃푝푝 � where퐷퐷퐷 퐷퐷퐷 ∗ 퐺𝐺퐺 퐷퐷 ∗ 퐺𝐺푚 ∗ 푃푃푃푝푝

- :

�푠푠푠�푠 𝑝 푃�푃�푃푃 𝑆𝑆� (3) Data

Whole Malaysia in GDP 1,000,000

900,000

800,000

700,000

600,000

500,000 (Mil. RM) 400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-2. Trend of GDP in Malaysia (Source) The data was regressed by the data from Department of Statistics.

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌5 Penang State in GDP 80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000 (Mil. RM)

30,000

20,000

10,000

0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-3. Trend of GDP in Penang State (Source) The data was regressed by the data from Department of Statistics.

2,500,000

2,000,000

Penang State 1,500,000 Persons 1,000,000

Penang Island 500,000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-4. Trend of population in Penang State and Penang Island (Source) The data was regressed by the data from Department of Statistics.

(4) Division of some domestic supplies by the product types The domestic supply of television sets and personal computers are necessary to be divided further by types, because the concentration of materials contained in these products are different from CRT type and non-CRT type. The domestic supply of television sets were divided to two categories: CRT type and

6 ▌ non-CRT type. The data of computers were divided to three categories: desktop with CRT, desktop with non-CRT and laptop. The data used for division TV is shown in Figure 2-5. The remaining can be thought as the non-CRT TVs. The computers were divided into desktop type and laptop type first by using the data shown in Figure 2-6. After this division, the desktop computers were divided into CRT type and non-CRT type by using the data used for TVs.

rateCRT in TV 100

90

80

70

60

50 (%)

40

30

20

10

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-5. Trend of rate of CRT TV supplied to the world market Source: NPD DisplaySearch Advanced Quarterly Global TV Shipment and Forecast Report URL:http://www.displaysearch.com/cps/rde/xchg/displaysearch/hs.xsl/120103_lcd_tv_shipment_growth_to_improve_in_2012_driven_by_4 0_and_larger_sizes.asp (confirmed as of 12/March/2012)

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌7 rDT in PC 100

90

80

70

60

50 (%)

40

30

20

10

0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-6. Trend of rate of desktop PC supplied in the emerging market Source: IDC Worldwide Quarterly PC Tracker, May 2011 (http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS22861211(Confirmed as of 12/March/2012) Note: The number of desktop computers divided by the data on this figure was divided again into CRT type and not-CRT type by using the data used for TVs.

(5) Domestic supply The domestic supply calculated by the above procedure can be described in the following figure.

1,800,000

1,600,000

1,400,000

1,200,000 MobilePhone PC(NB) 1,000,000 PC(DT&LCD) PC(DT&CRT) (unit) 800,000 AirConditioner WashingMachine 600,000 Refrigerator TV(nonCRT) TV(CRT) 400,000

200,000

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-7. Domestic supply to Penang Island in terms of number of units

8 ▌ 2.2 IMPORTED SECONDHAND PRODUCTS

(1) Units of imported secondhand products There is no data of imported secondhand products. However, there seems that the certain amount of personal computers are imported. The rate of imported secondhand computers can be assumed around 20% of the new products. As for other products, the imported products are not considered.

(2) Average age of imported secondhand computers According to DOE regulations1, the importation of secondhand computers is allowed as far as their ages are less than three years. So the average ages of the imported secondhand computers were set equally from one to three years.

2.3 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF E-WASTE PER UNIT E-wastes were weighted by types in junkshops and repair shops. The data were aggregated as shown in the following table.

Table 2-1. Average weight of e-waste per unit Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) Number of 100 100 100 90 100 100 100 Sample Average 31.33 53.76 37.01 44.68 10.47 2.87 0.24 Standard 7.30 12.13 7.76 11.02 1.46 0.67 0.04 error Upper (*) 32.76 56.13 38.53 46.96 10.76 3.00 0.24 Lower (*) 29.90 51.38 35.48 42.41 10.18 2.73 0.23 Source: Study Team Note: Significance=5%

2.4 WEIGHT OF DOMESTIC SUPPLY The domestic supply in terms of unit can be converted to weights shown in Figure 2-8.

1 Department of Environment: Guidelines for the Classification of Used Electronic and Electrical Equipment in Malaysia (2008)

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌9 20,000

18,000

16,000

14,000 MobilePhone 12,000 PC(NB) PC(DT&LCD) 10,000 PC(DT&CRT) (ton) AirConditioner 8,000 WashingMachine Refrigerator 6,000 TV(nonCRT) TV(CRT) 4,000

2,000

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-8. Domestic supply to Penang Island in terms of weight Note: Including imported secondhand computers

2.5 AVERAGE AGE OF E-WASTE AND DISCARDING DISTRIBUTION

(1) Average age of e-waste The age of e-waste were checked for the same samples of which weights were observed as shown in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2. Average age of e-waste per unit Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) Number of 100 100 100 90 100 100 100 Sample Average 12.13 9.83 10.99 14.06 9.16 5.90 4.07 age Standard 4.57 4.53 5.16 7.35 3.77 3.45 2.68 error Upper (*) 13.03 10.72 12.00 15.57 9.90 6.58 4.60 Lower (*) 11.23 8.94 9.98 12.54 8.42 5.22 3.54 Source: Study Team Note: Significance=5%

10 ▌ (2) Discarding distribution The lifetime of EEE varies depending on the users. The distribution of the discarding probability slowly rises from zero and reaches to the peak at the average age of the e-waste. The Weibull distribution is commonly used for the calculation of lifetime of e-waste. The cumulative probability function of Weibull is described as

- ( ) = 1 [ { (1 + )} ] 푏 푦 1 푏 - where푊푡 � − 𝑒� − �푦�푡� ∗ 훤 푏 - ( ): Cumulative probability to be discarded up to the number of years passed y after supplied 푊푡 � - : Average age of target e-waste - Γ: gamma function �푡 Here, the parameter b can be set as 3.0 – 4.0 practically according to Yoshida et. al2. In this project, 3.5 was used for the parameter b. The percentage to be discarded in year y after supplied can be given as

- ( ) = ( ) ( 1) - Her′ e (0) = 0 푊 푡 � 푊푡 � − 푊푡 � − 푊푡

2.6 WEIGHT OF DISCARDED E-WASTE The weight of the discarded e-wastes in year can be calculated from the domestic supplies from the first year up to year . �� The mathematical expression is�� - = ( ) where � 퐷� ∑푗=1 푃푗 ∗ 푊′푡 � − 푗 - : Domestic supply in year j - : Discarded e-waste in year i. 푃푗 퐷�

2.7 RATE OF REPAIRED E-WASTE One of the unique characters of the e-waste in developing countries is the high rate of repair activities. The study team investigated the repair rate by the product categories and found the rate shown in the following table.

2 Tomohiro Tasaki, Masahiro Oguchi, Takashi Kmeya and Kohei Urano: A prediction method for the number of waste durable goods, Journal of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 49 – 58, 2001

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌11 Table 2-3. Rate of repaired e-waste (r) Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) 56% 65% 59% 63% 19% 77% 82% Source: Study team survey Note: The rate for CRT TV was used for non-CRT TV and the rate for CRT PC was used for non-CRT PC (desktop), because the data for non-CRT products was insufficient.

2.8 STOCK AND E-WASTE SENT TO MATERIAL RECOVERY The relation between the repaired and disposed e-waste can be explained in the following figure.

Repair

Ri

Di=Ri+Wi Wi Material Use Discard recovery

Figure 2-9. Relation between repaired e-waste and the e-waste sent to material recovery

In the above figure,

- = and 푅� � ∗ 퐷� - = (1 ) - r: Repair rate (shown in the Table 2-3). 푊� − � ∗ 퐷�

Here, the stock in year i can be expressed as

- = + Where �� ��−1 푃� − 푊� - : Stock in year i

�� The amount of stocked EEE and the amount of e-waste sent to material recovery can be calculated as shown in Figure 2-10 and Figure 2-12, respectively. The amount of repaired e-waste will be shown later in the e-waste flow.

12 ▌ 450,000

400,000

350,000

300,000 MobilePhone PC(NB) 250,000 PC(DT&LCD) PC(DT&CRT) (ton) 200,000 AirConditioner WashingMachine 150,000 Refrigerator TV(nonCRT) TV(CRT) 100,000

50,000

0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2012 2013 2025 Figure 2-10. The amount of EEE stock in Penang Island (Si)

18,000

16,000

14,000

12,000 MobilePhone PC(NB) 10,000 PC(DT&LCD) PC(DT&CRT) (ton) 8,000 AirConditioner WashingMachine 6,000 Refrigerator TV(nonCRT) TV(CRT) 4,000

2,000

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 2-11. The amount of discarded e-waste in Penang Island including repaired (Di)

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌13 8,000

7,000

6,000

MobilePhone 5,000 PC(NB) PC(DT&LCD) 4,000 PC(DT&CRT) (ton) AirConditioner

3,000 WashingMachine Refrigerator TV(nonCRT) 2,000 TV(CRT)

1,000

← Past trend Future projection → 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2012 2013 2025 Figure 2-12. Trend of e-waste sent to material recovery from Penang Island (excluding repaired) (Wi)

2.9 E-WASTE FLOW

(1) Disposal parameters The e-waste flow survey conducted by the team discovered the disposal parameters. The

disposal parameters can be summarized as shown in Table 2-4. The symbols from p1 to q2 means the symbols used in Figure 1-2.

Table 2-4. Disposal parameters Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) p1 (%) 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 p2 (%) 100 100 100 100 95 100 100 p3 (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 q1 (%) 9 3 2 0 15 14 0 q2 (%) 91 97 98 100 85 86 100 Source: The e-waste flow study by the team.

(2) E-waste flow The e-waste flows by product are described as follows (Figure 2-13 to Figure 2-21), using the

14 ▌ model shown earlier in Figure 1-2.

Full Recovery Full Recovery In year 2011 r=3,249ton (56.1%) Facility r=1,400ton (64.8%) Facility In year 2011

p1=0ton(0.0%) p1=0ton(0.0%) q1=225ton(3.9%) q1=26ton(1.2%)

E-waste Conventional E-waste Conventional Generator Recycler Generator Recycler p2=5,787ton p2=2,161ton (100.0%) q2=2,313ton(40.0%) (100.0%) q2=735ton(34.0%)

p3=0ton(0.0%) p3=0ton(0.0%)

Dealer Scrap Dealer

Figure 2-13 E-waste flow (Television set, year 2011) Figure 2-14 E-waste flow (Refrigerator, year 2011)

Full Recovery Full Recovery r=477ton(58.7%) Facility In year 2011 r=2,393ton(62.5%) Facility In year 2011

p1=0ton(0.0%) p1=0ton(0.0%) q1=8ton(1.0%) q1=0ton(0.0%)

E-waste Conventional E-waste Conventional Generator Recycler Generator Recycler p2=813ton p2=3,829ton (100.0%) q2=328ton(40.4%) (100.0%) q2=1,436ton(37.5%)

p3=0ton(0.0%) p3=0ton(0.0%)

Scrap Dealer Scrap Dealer

Figure 2-15 E-waste flow (Washing machine, year 2011) Figure 2-16 E-waste flow (Air-conditioner, year 2011)

Full Recovery Full Recovery r=7,520ton(59.7%) Facility In year 2011 r=411ton(19.2%) Facility In year 2011

p1=0ton(0.0%) p1=79ton(3.7%) q1=259ton(2.1%) q1=250ton(11.7%)

E-waste Conventional E-waste Conventional Generator Recycler Generator Recycler p2=12,590ton p2=2,060ton (100.0%) q2=4,812ton(38.2%) (96.3%) q2=1,399ton(65.4%)

p3=0ton(0.0%) p3=0ton(0.0%)

Scrap Dealer Scrap Dealer

Figure 2-17 E-waste flow (Four items, year 2011) Figure 2-18 E-waste flow (PC Desktop, year 2011)

2. Estimation according to the procedure ▌15 Full Recovery Full Recovery r=226ton(76.7%) Facility In year 2011 r=637ton(26.2%) Facility In year 2011

p1=0ton(0.0%) p1=79ton(3.2%) q1=10ton(3.3%) q1=260ton(10.7%)

E-waste Conventional E-waste Conventional Generator Recycler Generator Recycler p2=294ton p2=2,354ton (100.0%) q2=59ton(20.0%) (96.8%) q2=1,458ton(59.9%)

p3=0ton(0.0%) p3=0ton(0.0%)

Scrap Dealer Scrap Dealer

Figure 2-19 E-waste flow (PC Notebook, year 2011) Figure 2-20 E-waste flow (PC Total, year 2011)

Full Recovery r=104ton(82.1%) Facility In year 2011

p1=0ton(0.0%) q1=0ton (0.0%)

E-waste Conventional Generator Recycler p2=126ton (100.0%) q2=23ton(17.9%)

p3=0ton(0.0%)

Scrap Dealer

Figure 2-21 E-waste flow (Mobile phone, year 2011)

16 ▌ 3. S UBSTANCE FLOW MODEL FOR POLICY EVALUATION

3.1 INDEXES FOR POLICY EVALUATION The e-waste flow can be converted to substance base by setting the substance concentration contained in the e-waste. By giving the concentration of hazardous substances, the hazardousness can be quantified. By giving the concentration of precious metals, the loss of precious metals to outside of Malaysia can be quantified. In this project, the three indexes shown in the following table were applied.

Table 3-1. Three indexes for policy evaluation Index Unit Definition Explanation Considered Substances 1. Hazardousness % The amount of lead which is Lead 1 not covered by the full 퐹� recovery facilities (potential − 푊 amount of lead which might be released to the environment) 2. Resource % The amount of precious Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Platinum Recovery metals which are sent to the (Pt), Palladium (Pd) (converted 퐹� full recovery facilities to equivalent amount of gold by 푊 (conservation of the domestic LME prices) resources) 3. Traceability % The amount of e-waste which E-waste

is monitored by DOE Note 1: Hazardousness was calculated by considering퐹� only lead, because the concentration such as mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium regulated by RoHS is very small. 푊 Note 2: W means the amount of disposed e-waste excluding repaired e-waste. FR means the e-waste accepted by the full recovery facilities.

3.2 DATA PREPARATION

(1) Data for calculating hazardousness The data of lead concentration contained in e-waste by product types is summarized in the following table.

Table 3-2. Concentration of hazardous substances (wt%) Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) Lead CRT 6.7 1) CRT 6.7 3) non-CRT 0.0089 1) 0.0078 1) 0.0084 2) non-CRT 1.9 4) 1.7 5) 0.059 1) 1.1 4) Note: After year 2006, the concentration was set to 0.1% for lead, mercury and hexavalent chromium, and 0.01 % for cadmium according to RoHS3 directive. But the products which do not exceed these rates even before year 2005 were given the original rates.

3 DIRECTIVE 2002/95/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment

3. Substance flow model for policy evaluation ▌17 1) Tomoo Sekido, Nobutoshi Tanaka, Toshihiko Matsutou, Hiroko Kouda: Estimation on the amount of lead contained in home electric appliances, The 9th proceedings of the Japan Society of Waste Management, 1988 2) Average of refrigerator and washing machine 3) The same data for CRT television was used. 4) Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC): Report of a project to develop technologies for more efficient energy use and rare metal recovery, March 2008 5) Tohoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry: Feasibility study report on precious and rare metal recycling network from end-of-use digital home electric appliances, March 2007

(2) Data for calculating precious metals The data of precious metals concentration contained e-waste by product types is summarized in the following table. The precious metal concentrations were aggregated to gold equivalent concentration by using the prices in London Metal Exchange.

Table 3-3. Concentration of precious metals (wt%) Personal Computer Personal Computer Mobile Phone LME Price 3) (Desktop) (Laptop) (USD/kg) Gold 0.094 1) 0.022 1) 0.16 2) 50.44 Silver 0.11 1) 0.057 1) 0.24 2) 0.91 Platinum 0.0003 1) 0.0002 1) 0.0008 2) 44.01 Palladium 0.036 1) 0.011 1) 0.034 2) 19.87 1) Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC): Report of a project to develop technologies for more efficient energy use and rare metal recovery, March 2008 2) Average of JOGMEC and data from Tohoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry: Feasibility study report on precious and rare metal recycling network from end-of-use digital home electric appliances, March 2007 3) Prices in London Metal Exchange Market, as of 6 Jan. 2012

3.3 TREND OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND PRECIOUS METALS The hazardous substances and precious metals contained in e-waste can be calculated based on the amount of e-waste discarded as shown in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2.

18 ▌ 250

200

Lead in e-waste 150 Potentially Released ton) - Lead (Lead 100

50

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 3-1. Trend of lead contained in e-waste as an index for hazardousness

2.5

2.0

Precious Metals in e- ton) - 1.5 waste

Recovered Precious Metal

1.0 (GoldEquivalent

0.5

0.0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 3-2. Trend of precious metals contained in e-waste

3. Substance flow model for policy evaluation ▌19 3.4 TREND OF THREE INDEXES

(1) Business as usual The three indexes can be calculated chronologically based on the amount of e-waste discarded. Figure 3-3 shows the trend in the business-as-usual case (BAU) without policy whereas Figure 3-4 shows the case when any policy succeeds to change the e-waste flow. Even in the BAU case, the trend changes a little due to the change in the product component rate.

100

90

80

70

Hazardousness 60 ResourceRecovery

50 Traceability (%)

40

30

20

10

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 3-3. Trend of the three indexes for policy evaluation

(2) With policy The change of the three indexes with any policy can be evaluated by setting the future e-waste flow parameters. The parameters can be set as shown in Table 3-4. The result can be seen in Figure 3-4.

Table 3-4 The parameters set to evaluate the policy effect in the year of 2020 Value k Same as the present value p1 50% (p1=p2) p2

q1 50% (q1=q2) q2

20 ▌ Note: The data between 2012 and 2019 was interpolated smoothly.

100

90

80

70

Hazardousness 60 ResourceRecovery 50

(%) Traceability

40

30

20

10

← Past trend Future projection → 0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Figure 3-4. Trend of the three indexes for policy evaluation

3. Substance flow model for policy evaluation ▌21 4. O THER CONSIDERATIONS

4.1 CONSIDERATION TO THE DEAD STORAGE OF BROKEN EEE IN HOUSEHOLDS

(1) Data of dead storage from questionnaire survey According to the questionnaire survey, some e-wastes are kept inside households even after they are broken. The rates are summarized in the following table. In Japan, mobile phones are easily kept by the discarders for some reasons such as keeping memories. In Penang Island, not only mobile phone but also other bulky EEEs are kept in households after out of use.

Table 4-1. Percentage of broken EEE possessed by households in the total stock as of year 2011 Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) CRT 5.0% CRT 6.9% 1.5% 2.8% 1.4% 1.7% 4.1% non-CRT 1.3% non-CRT 1.6% Source: Questionnaire survey by the Study team

(2) Consideration to the dead storage The discarded rates were sought by iterations as that the amount of stock meets the rates of broken EEEs. The amount of stock is incremented by the amount of broken kept EEEs. By this means, the discarded rates, i.e. physically discarded e-waste divided by total discarded e-waste including the ones kept inside households, are resulted in the following table.

Table 4-2. Discarded rate by product types Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone (Desktop) (Laptop) 87% 94% 90% 95% 95% 80% 73% Note 1: The rate for CRT type television is applied to non-CRT type television. Note 2: The rate for personal computer (desktop) is applied to all types of computers, where personal computer (laptop) is on the prevailing process and its discarding rate cannot be estimated by the iterations.

4.2 CONSIDERATION TO THE LIFETIME OF NON-CRT DISPLAY It is said that non-CRT displays such as LCD have shorter lifetime than CRT displays due to the lifetime of the backlight. But the practical lifetime of non-CRT displays is unsure and such data cannot be obtained from the questionnaire surveys, because not so many non-CRT display products have been discarded yet. Based on the situations, in this project, the sensitivity of the results was checked, changing the

22 ▌ lifetime of non-CRT displays. Target products are non-CRT televisions and non-CRT personal computers. The minimum lifetime of the products were set as 3/4 of the lifetime of CRT displays. 9.1 years were set to non-CRT TVs and 5.6 years were set to non-CRT desktop PCs, while 12.1 years and 7.5 years were the lifetimes of CRT TV and CRT desktop PCs respectively. The result can be seen in Figure 4-1. For example, when “Average used year of TV (non-CRT)” changes from the standard value to 3/4 of the standard value, it changes the amount of e-waste sent to material recovery at the rate of 7%. As for desktop non-CRT PCs, the change is -2%. So, the change in the lifetime of non-CRT products changes the total weight of e-waste in 2011 at the rate of 5%. It is concluded that the change in the average lifetime of non-CRT displays does not affect the amount of e-waste sent to material recovery much. Here, considering the prevalence speed of non-CRT products, the estimation was made based on the year 2020 figure.

AverageUsedYear of TV(nonCRT)

AverageUsedYear of PC(DT&LCD)

AverageUsedYear of PC(NB)

-4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 (%)

Figure 4-1. Rate of change in total weight of e-waste sent to material recovery in year 2020

4.3 CONSIDERATION TO THE ORPHAN PERSONAL COMPUTERS It is said that there were many orphan personal computers in Penang in the 1990’s, but there hardly is such a case recently. But the reliable data do not exist to describe this situation. So, the sensitivity analysis was conducted for the evaluation regarding non-CRT lifetime. The component rate of orphan PCs was set as shown in Figure 4-2 so that the rate of orphan PCs in the 1990’s is 50% and the rate in 2011 is nearly zero. This means that the domestic supply in the 1990’s will become 1.5 times of the standard values. The result is shown in Figure 4-3. The additional domestic supply from orphan PCs affects the amount of e-waste sent to material recovery in the year 2011 at the rate of 5% at the

4. Other considerations ▌23 maximum.

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Figure 4-2. Rate of orphan personal computer Note: The rate was set so that the rate in 1990’ is 50% and nearly zero in 2011.

DomesticSupply of PC(DT&CRT)

DomesticSupply of PC(DT&LCD)

DomesticSupply of PC(NB)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 (%)

Figure 4-3. Rate of change in total weight of e-waste sent to material recovery in year 2011

4.4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON THE IMPORTATION OF SECONDHAND PERSONAL COMPUTERS The data of the imported secondhand personal computers were set as 20% of the new products, as the data are not available. Here, the sensitivity of the imported secondhand personal computers was analyzed, changing the imported rate from 10% to 30% of the standard value 20%.

24 ▌ The changes in the amount of the imported secondhand computers affects the total weight of the discarded e-waste at the rate of less than 1.5% at the maximum in the case of the desktop CRT computer. The amount of the imported secondhand computers is ignorable in terms of the total e-waste.

ImportedSecondhand of PC(DT&CRT)

ImportedSecondhand of PC(DT&LCD)

ImportedSecondhand of PC(NB)

-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 (%)

Figure 4-4. Sensitivity analysis on the imported secondhand computers in year 2011

4.5 CONSIDERATION TO THE E-WASTE FROM BUSINESS ENTITIES In this project, e-waste from business entities was investigated by means of some questionnaire surveys. By checking the questionnaire survey data, the major discarding way is reportedly to take them to small junk shops or other conventional recyclers. There is not an obvious direct flow into full recovery facilities. E-wastes from business entities flows to small conventional recyclers first and some of them are repaired. Among the portions going to material recovery, some of them may be sent to full recovery facilities besides the ones sent to conventional scrap dealers. This means the discarding structure is similar to that of households, and the difference between households and business entities does not affect the macroscopic results such as the three indexes. So, in this project, the flow data obtained from households were used for the calculation.

4. Other considerations ▌25

26 ▌

Annex I II

E-waste flow study

Contents

Annex III 1

1. Preconditions and data sources for describing e-waste flow 1 1.1 PRECONDITIONS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DISCARDED E-WASTE 1 (1) TARGET E-WASTES 1 (2) STUDY YEAR 1 1.2 DATA SOURCES FOR DESCRIBING E-WASTE FLOW 1 (1) DATA SOURCES FOR DESCRIBING E-WASTE FLOW 1 (2) OUTLINES OF THE TWO SURVEYS 2

2. Describing the e-waste flow 3 2.1 MODEL OF THE E-WASTE FLOW 3 (1) MODEL FLOW 3 (2) DESCRIPTION OF THE RULES FOR THE MODEL 3 2.2 ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS 4 (1) ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS G1 TO G6 4 (2) ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS R1 AND R2 4 (3) ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS R3, R5, RS1 AND RS3 5 (4) ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS R4 AND RS2 6 (5) ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS D1, D2 AND D3 7

3. Outputs for e-waste flows in each target item 9 3.1 E-WASTE FLOW RATIOS 9 3.2 E-WASTE FLOW CHARTS 10 (1) TELEVISION SET (CRT AND NON-CRT) 10 (2) REFRIGERATOR 11 (3) WASHING MACHINE 11 (4) AIR-CONDITIONER 12 (5) PERSONAL COMPUTER (DESKTOP WITH CRT AND NON-CRT) 12 (6) PERSONAL COMPUTER (NOTEBOOK) 13 (7) MOBILE PHONE 13

Abbreviations

CRT Cathode Ray Tube EEE Electrical and Electronic Equipment e-waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste LCD Liquid Crystal Display MPPP Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (Municipal Council of Penang Island)

1. P RECONDITIONS AND DATA SOURCES FOR DESCRIBING E- WASTE FLOW

1.1 PRECONDITIONS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DISCARDED E-WASTE

(1) Target e-wastes In this study, the following six items were targeted by considering the dominancy, hazardousness, precious metals concentration and other factors shown in the inception report.

- Television set (CRT and non-CRT) - Refrigerator - Washing machine - Air-conditioner - Personal computer (desktop with CRT, desktop with non-CRT and laptop) - Mobile phone

(2) Study year - As of 2011

1.2 DATA SOURCES FOR DESCRIBING E-WASTE FLOW

(1) Data sources for describing e-waste flow The following two surveys are the data sources for describing the current e-waste flow in Penang Island.

- The Questionnaire Survey on Public Attitude to E-waste in Penang Island in Malaysia (Questionnaire survey) - The Survey on the Current Situation of E-waste in Penang Island in Malaysia (e-waste flow survey) The data from the questionnaire survey and the e-waste survey are used for the description of the e-waste flow passed out from the waste generators to the primary destination, such as repair shops, secondhand shops and junk shops, and the e-waste flow after the primary destination, respectively.

1. Preconditions and data sources for describing e-waste flow ▌1 Questionnaire survey E-waste flow survey

E-waste flow from E-waste flow after waste generators to the primary primary destination destination

Figure 1-1. Target e-waste flows to describe based on the two surveys

In the e-waste flow survey, some of the information on the amount of e-waste or on where to buy/sell the e-waste from/to that was considered clearly miswritten was corrected by the Team by inquiring the respondents directly.

(2) Outlines of the two surveys The outlines of the above-mentioned surveys are shown in the following table.

Table 1-1. Outlines of the questionnaire survey and the e-waste flow survey Questionnaire survey on public attitude Survey on current situation of e-waste in e-waste in Penang Island (questionnaire Penang Island (e-waste flow survey) survey) Survey period October 2011 to December 2011 October 2011 to January 2012 Targets and - Household: 418 - Full Recovery Facility: 8 number of samples - Business: 124 - Partial Recovery Facility: 12 - Retailer: 5 - Repair ship/ maintenance shop: 3 - Secondhand shop: 21 - Junkshop/ Scrap shop/ Collector: 20 - NGO/ Recycling Centre:3 Main survey items - Experiences to discard e-wastes - Amount of e-waste - Information and activities on present - From where to receive e-waste e-waste recycling system - Where to sell e-waste - Opinion on future e-waste recycling - Reception price and selling price of system e-waste

2 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study 2. D ESCRIBING THE E - WASTE FLOW

2.1 MODEL OF THE E-WASTE FLOW

(1) Model flow The following figure shows a model of e-waste flow in Penang Island. The parameters of inflow and outflow of boxes in the figure are expressed with signs, such as g1, r1, rs1 and d1 given to each arc of input flow and output flow of the boxes in the figure.

g1 Recycling Centre

r1

g2 Waste Collection

r2 d2 Full Recovery g3 Retailer Facility r3 rs3 rs1 r5

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap g4 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop r4 rs2 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business d3 d1 Partial Recovery g5 Secondhand shop Facility g6

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 2-1. Model of e-waste flow in Penang Island

(2) Description of the rules for the model The total value of parameters of inflow and outflow for each box is calculated to be equal. How the estimations of the parameters in the model were made is explained in the next section.

2. Describing the e-waste flow ▌3 2.2 ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS

(1) Estimation of Parameters g1 to g6 The parameters “g1” through “g6” are estimated data from the questionnaire survey. To calculate ratios for the parameters “g1” to “g6,” the number of answers to the question on discarding e-wastes in the questionnaire is counted with the exception of no responses and answers of “Sell/ give to relative or friend”, “None of the above” or “Others”. In addition, answers of “Take to Recycling Center for coupon” are excluded for the calculation except in the cases where computers are received at Recycling Centre. Indeed, the parameters “g1” to “g6” can be calculated based on the data from the e-waste flow survey too, but the data from the questionnaire survey are applied to the estimation in this model in consideration of data stability with more than 400 samples of households.

g1 Recycling Centre

g2 Waste Collection

g3 Retailer

g4 Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap Maintenance shop/ Collector shop Household/ Business g5 Partial Recovery Facility Secondhand shop

g6

Figure 2-2. Primary destination for e-waste discarded by households and businesses

(2) Estimation of Parameters r1 and r2 E-waste flow models for Recycling Centre and Waste Collection are shown in the following figures.

4 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study g1 r1 Recycling Centre

Figure 2-3. Inflow and outflow of recycling centre

g2 r2 Waste Collection

Figure 2-4. Inflow and outflow of waste collection

In accordance with the description of the rules, “r1” and “r2” each equals to “g1” and “g2” respectively.

- 1 = 1 - 2 = 2 푟 푔 푟 푔 (3) Estimation of Parameters r3, r5, rs1 and rs3 E-waste flow model for Retailer is shown in the following figure.

g3 r3 Retailer

rs3 rs1 r5

Figure 2-5. Inflow and outflow of retailers

The parameter “r3” is obtained by the following equation.

- 3 = 3 where 푟 푔 ∗ 푘 - : Ratio of irreparable e-waste The parameter “k” is estimated based on the data in the e-waste flow survey. 푘 The number of samples of retailers in the survey is comparatively small. Therefore, another ratio of e-waste passed over from Repair shops/ Maintenance shops to Junk shops/ Scrap shops/ Collectors or Partial Recovery Facilities in the survey is used as the parameter “k” assuming that it is the same as the ratio of e-waste passed out from Retailer to Junk shops/

2. Describing the e-waste flow ▌5 Scrap shops/ Collectors or Partial Recovery Facilities. The parameter “r5” is obtained by the following equation assuming that “r5” is equivalent to “rs1” and “rs3”.

- 5 = 3 3 - 1 = 3 = 5 푟 푔 − 푟 Under warranty, even though the e-products are irreparable, they are replaced with new ones 푟푟 푟푟 푟 and send back to consumers. Therefore, “rs1” and “rs3” are considered same as “r5”.

(4) Estimation of Parameters r4 and rs2 E-waste flow model for Repair shops/ Maintenance shops and Secondhand shops is shown in the following figure.

rs1 r5

g4 r4 Repair shop/ Maintenance shop rs2

Secondhand shop g5 d1

Figure 2-6. Inflow and outflow of repair shops and secondhand shops

The parameter “r4” is obtained by the following equation and data from the e-waste survey.

- 4 = ( 4 + 6) where 푟 푔 푔 ∗ 푙 - : passed out from repair shops or secondhand shops to collectors or dismantlers. 푙 푅푅푅푅푅 �표 푒 − 푤𝑤𝑤 Because some of the repair shops also do business of secondhand, “r4” and “rs2” are integrally computed for the boxes of Repair shops/ Maintenance shops and Secondhand shops. The parameter “rs2” is obtained by the following equation.

6 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study - 2 = 4 + 5 + 1 4 Estimation of parameter “d1” is explained in the next section. 푟푟 푔 푔 푑 − 푟

(5) Estimation of Parameters d1, d2 and d3 E-waste flow model for waste collectors and dismantlers is shown in the following figure.

r3 r2

d2 r4 Junkshop/ Scrap shop/ Collector d3

Partial Recovery d1 Facility

g6 Figure 2-7. Inflow and outflow of dismantler or collector

The parameters “d1”, ”d2” and “d3” are obtained by the following equations.

- 1 = ( 6 + 2 + 3 + 4)*m - 2 = ( 6 + 2 + 3 + 4)*n 푑 푔 푟 푟 푟 - 3 = ( 6 + 2 + 3 + 4)*o 푑 푔 푟 푟 푟 where 푑 푔 푟 푟 푟 - m: Ratio of reusable e-waste send to Repair shop/ Maintenance shop or Secondhand shop - n: Ratio of e-waste sent to Full Recovery Facility - o: Ratio of reusable e-waste sent to Dealer/ Trader The parameters “m”, “n” and “o” are estimated by using the outflow data from Junk shops/ Scrap shops/ Collectors and Partial Recovery Facilities in the e-waste flow survey. Actually these parameters can also be obtained from the inflow data is the survey but the outflow data are used because the parameters “g3”, “r2”, “r3” and “r4” are already obtained. The parameter “m” is calculated in consideration of the cases that e-wastes are passed over from junk shops or collectors to repair or maintenance shops as not reusable ones but repair parts. It is then difficult to specify the weight of the parts in the survey. Therefore, to calculate

2. Describing the e-waste flow ▌7 the ratio of “m”, only 50% of the weight obtained in the e-waste flow survey is counted as e-wastes passed over to Repair shops/ Maintenance shops or Secondhand Shops. In addition, the parameter “m” even includes a small portion of e-wastes sold directly as secondhand ones to households or businesses by junk shops or collectors in order to make the e-waste flow model simpler.

8 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study 3. O UTPUTS FOR E- WASTE FLOWS IN EACH TARGET ITEM

3.1 E-WASTE FLOW RATIOS Calculated ratios for e-waste flows in each target item are shown in the flowing table, and Figure 3-1 shows the comprehensive structure of e-waste flow in Penang Island.

Table 3-1. E-waste flow rations in each target item (%) Signs Television Refrigerator Washing Air- Personal Personal Mobile set (CRT Machine conditioner Computer Computer Phone and (Desktop) (Laptop) non-CRT) g1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 g2 12.5 8.5 13.7 0.0 31.8 0.0 5.6 g3 15.0 29.8 33.3 37.5. 4.5 10.0 36.1 g4 23.8 21.3 9.8 25.0 4.5 40.0 11.1 g5 8.8 12.8 11.8 0.0 13.6 30.0 36.1 g6 40.0 27.7 31.4 37.5 40.9 20.0 11.1 r1=g1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 r2=g2 12.5 8.5 13.7 0.0 31.8 0.0 5.6 r3=g3*k 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.7 0.4 r4=(g4+g6 2.9 3.8 3.5 0.0 3.9 2.8 0.8 )+l r5=g3-r3 14.9 29.8 33.3 37.5 4.2 9.3 35.8 rs1=r5 41.3 29.8 33.3 37.5 4.2 9.3 35.8 rs2=g4+g 14.9 35.0. 25.3 25.0 15.0 67.4 46.4 5+d1-r4 rs3=r5 41.3 29.9 33.3 37.5 4.2 9.3 35.8 d1=(g6+r2 11.7 4.8 7.3 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.0 +r3+r4)*m d2=(g6+r2 3.9 1.2 1.0 0.0 11.6 3.3 0.0 +r3+r4)*n d3=(g6+r2 40.0 34.0 40.4 37.5 64.7 20.0 17.9 +r3+r4)*o

3. Outputs for e-waste flows in each target item ▌9 g1 Recycling Centre

r1

g2 Waste Collection

r2 d2 Full Recovery g3 Retailer Facility r3 rs3 rs1 r5

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap g4 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop r4 rs2 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business d3 d1 Partial Recovery g5 Secondhand shop Facility g6

Penang Island State of Penang Figure 3-1. Comprehensive structures of e-waste flow in Penang Island (reinsertion)

3.2 E-WASTE FLOW CHARTS E-waste flow charts with ratios are shown below in each target item.

(1) Television set (CRT and non-CRT)

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

12.5 Waste Collection

12.5 3.9 Full Recovery 15.0 Retailer Facility 0.2 14.9 14.9 14.9

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 23.8 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 2.9 41.3 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 40.0 11.7 Partial Recovery 8.8 Secondhand shop Facility 40.0

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-2. E-waste flow of television set (CRT and non-CRT)

10 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study (2) Refrigerator

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

8.5 Waste Collection

8.5 1.2 Full Recovery 29.8 Retailer Facility 0.0 29.8 29.8 29.8

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 21.3 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 3.8 35.0 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 34.0 4.8 Partial Recovery 12.8 Secondhand shop Facility 27.7

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-3. E-waste flow of refrigerator

(3) Washing machine

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

13.7 Waste Collection

13.7 1.0 Full Recovery 33.3 Retailer Facility 0.0 33.3 33.3 33.3

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 9.8 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 3.5 25.3 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 40.4 7.3 Partial Recovery 11.8 Secondhand shop Facility 31.4

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-4. E-waste flow of washing machine

3. Outputs for e-waste flows in each target item ▌11 (4) Air-conditioner

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

0.0 Waste Collection

0.0 0.0 Full Recovery 37.5 Retailer Facility 0.0 37.5 37.5 37.5

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 25.0 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 0.0 25.0 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 37.5 0.0 Partial Recovery 0.0 Secondhand shop Facility 37.5

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-5. E-waste flow of air-conditioner

(5) Personal computer (desktop with CRT and non-CRT)

4.5 Recycling Centre

4.5

31.8 Waste Collection

31.8 11.6 Full Recovery 4.5 Retailer Facility 0.4 4.2 4.2 4.2

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 4.5 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 3.9 15.0 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 64.7 0.8 Partial Recovery 13.6 Secondhand shop Facility 40.9

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-6. E-waste flow of personal computer (desktop with CRT and non-CRT)

12 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study (6) Personal computer (notebook)

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

0.0 Waste Collection

0.0 3.3 Full Recovery 10.0 Retailer Facility 0.7 9.3 9.3 9.3

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 40.0 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 2.8 67.4 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 20.0 0.2 Partial Recovery 30.0 Secondhand shop Facility 20.0

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-7. E-waste flow of personal computer (notebook)

(7) Mobile phone

0.0 Recycling Centre

0.0

5.6 Waste Collection

5.6 0.0 Full Recovery 36.1 Retailer Facility 0.4 35.8 35.8 35.8

Repair shop/ Junkshop/ Scrap 11.1 Maintenance shop/ Collector shop 0.8 46.4 Household/ Dealer/ Trader Business 17.9 0.0 Partial Recovery 36.1 Secondhand shop Facility 11.1

Penang Island State of Penang

Figure 3-8. E-waste flow of mobile phone

3. Outputs for e-waste flows in each target item ▌13

14 ▐Annex III. E-waste flow study

Annex IV

Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Contents

Annex IV 1

1. Pilot Project Planning 1 1.1 OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES 1 (1) OBJECTIVES 1 (2) ASSUMPTIONS AND STRATEGIES 1 1.2 TARGETS 1 (1) TARGET E-WASTES 1 (2) TARGET GROUPS 2 1.3 COLLABORATION MECHANISM 2 (1) COLLABORATION MECHANISM 2 (2) PARTICIPATION FROM MANUFACTURES 4 1.4 CONCEPT OF PILOT PROJECT SYSTEM 4 (1) FLOW SWITCHING 4 (2) HOW TO SWITCH THE FLOW 5 (3) BASIC SYSTEM 6 1.5 PILOT PROJECT COMMENCEMENT 8 (1) PERIOD OF THE PILOT PROJECT 8 (2) INITIAL PARTICIPANTS 8 (3) FULL RECOVERY FACILITY 8 (4) INITIAL PRICES OF THE COMMON VOUCHERS 8 1.6 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 9 (1) INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 9 (2) INFORMATION FORMS 10 (3) DATA COMPILATION 12 1.7 ADVERTIsem*nT 12 (1) EVENTS 12 (2) PROMOTION GOODS 13

2. Evaluation plan and the pre-evaluation 15 2.1 EVALUATION SYSTEM 15 (1) EVALUATION CRITERIA 15 (2) EVALUATION INDICATORS 15 (3) EXPLANATION OF EVALUATION INDICATORS AND MEASURING METHOD 16 2.2 PRE-EVALUATION BEFORE THE COMMENCEMENT 17

2.3 EVALUATION PLAN 21

3. Pilot Project Implementation 22 3.1 PARTICIPATING RETAILERS 22

3.2 COLLECTED E-WASTES 24 (1) COLLECTED E-WASTES IN TERMS OF NUMBER AND WEIGHT 24 (2) SCENES OF E-WASTE COLLECTION 25 3.3 INTERPRETATION OF THE AMOUNT OF E-WASTES COLLECTED 27 (1) COOPERATION RATE 27 (2) WILLINGNESS TO BE PAID CURVE 28 3.4 FINDINGS FROM THE PILOT PROJECT 30 (1) ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF EACH TYPE OF E-WASTES 30 (2) OTHER FINDINGS 31 3.5 COST ANALYSIS 32 (1) DIRECT COST 32 (2) ADDITIONAL COST FOR RETAILERS 33 (3) VOUCHER RECLAIMING 33 3.6 TRIAL ANALYSIS FOR FUTURE EXPANSION 33 (1) REQUIRED VOUCHER PRICE AND PREVALENCE RATE FOR ACHIEVING A TARGET COLLECTION RATE33 (2) REQUIRED BUDGET FOR ADDITIONAL VOUCHER PRICES 37

4. Post-evaluation on the Pilot Project 39

5. Recommendations 46 (1) SUCCESSION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 46 (2) MORE PARTICIPATION FROM RETAILERS 46 (3) DATA ACCUMULATION AND UPDATE OF WTP CURVES 46

Appendices 47 APPENDIX 1. EXPECTED COOPERATION RATE DEFINED FOR THE PRE-EVALUATION BEFORE COMMENCEMENT 49 1. DEFINITION OF WTP (WILLINGNESS TO BE PAID) DISTRIBUTION 49 2. OTHER ASSUMPTIONS 49 3. EXPECTED “PARTICIPATION RATE” 50 4. EXPECTED AMOUNT OF E-WASTE TO BE COLLECTED BY USING THE PILOT PROJECT SYSTEM WHEN EXPANDED TO THE WHOLE PENANG ISLAND 50 APPENDIX 2. EXPECTED AMOUNT OF E-WASTE TO BE COLLECTED BY THE LOCAL BUSINESSES 51 1. PARTICIPATING LOCAL BUSINESSES (AS OF JUNE 2) 51 2. EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE EXPECTED AMOUNT OF E-WASTE COLLECTED BY THE PARTICIPATING LOCAL BUSINESSES 51 APPENDIX 3. DEFINITION OF “COOPERATION RATE” 52 1. THOUGHTS FOR DEFINING “COOPERATION RATE” 52 2. DEFINITION 52 3. WTP DISTRIBUTION BY USING THE CALIBRATED COOPERATION RATES 56 APPENDIX 4. COST ANALYSIS 58 1. COLLECTION COST BORNE BY THE PARTICIPATING RETAILERS 58 2. COST STRUCTURE OF THE FULL RECOVERY FACILITIES 59 APPENDIX 5. EQUIVALENT CURVE FOR ACHIEVING A TARGET COLLECTION RATE 61

APPENDIX 6. INSTRUCTION MANUALS FOR SHOPS 62 1. INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR HOME ELECTRIC APPLIANCE SHOPS 62 2. INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR MOBILE PHONE SHOPS 65

Abbreviations

AC Air-conditioner CRT Cathode Ray Tube DOE Department of Environment EEE Electrical and Electronic Equipment EPR Extended Producer’s Responsibility e-waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency LCD Liquid Crystal Display MPPP Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (Municipal Council of Penang Island) PC Personal Computer Fridge Refrigerator TV Television WTP Willingness To Pay

1. P ILOT P ROJECT P LANNING

1.1 OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

(1) Objectives

a) Objective of the Project The Project aims at developing an appropriate, effective and efficient e-waste collection system from households. The developed system is expected to be used as a model for expanding it to the nationwide collection system. At the same time, it is expected for DOE to derive policy implications for the future expansion.

b) Objective of the Pilot Project The Pilot Project aims at testing an appropriate, effective and efficient e-waste collection system from households. The tested system shall supply the data which can be used for discussing a nationwide model for an e-waste collection system as well as a new policy by DOE.

(2) Assumptions and strategies Some sorts of incentives to the customers are required in order to collect e-wastes from households, where e-wastes are traded as economic goods in the conventional recycling market. E-waste flow might be controlled by:

- giving economic incentives to consumers, - giving a convenient and timely e-waste collection service (collecting e-wastes upon delivery of purchased good and/or upon handing it over at the shop) and - giving regular buy back service.

1.2 TARGETS

(1) Target e-wastes The target e-wastes are as stated in the Inception Report, but were classified in detail through the discussions with the related full recovery facilities as follows.

- Television set (Brown Tube Type) - Television set (Flat Type) - Refrigerator

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌1 - Washing machine - Air-conditioner (Full set) - Personal computer (Desktop) - Personal computer (Notebook) - Printer - Mobile phone - DVD player, VCD player and etc. - Others (Battery charger, Mobile phone battery, mouse, keyboard, etc.)

(2) Target groups DOE and the Team discussed and set the target groups as follows.

- MPPP and related governmental organizations - Local home electric appliance shops - Local mobile phone shops - Local hypermarkets - Local full recovery facilities - E-products manufactures - Local NGOs

1.3 COLLABORATION MECHANISM

(1) Collaboration mechanism

a) “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang” The Pilot Project is discussed in “Local Working Group” chaired by the state government, as shown in the following figure. The Local Working Group was upgraded to “E-waste Alam1 Alliance –Penang” for the management of the system in the future. This concept can be used for other states in the expansion stage.

1 “Alam” means “Environment” in Malaysian.

2 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 1-1. Collaboration Mechanism for the Pilot Project b) Initial members of “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang” MPPP and DOE Penang discussed and invited the following companies to “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”.

Table 1-1. Participants’ lists of “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang” Business Company Home electric appliances shop Ban Hin Bee BEST DENKI Loo Soon Seng Electrical Hypermarket Giant Sunshine Tesco Mobile carrier Channel Communication & Electronics Centre Sun Win Phone Shop NGO SPASTIC (The Chrebal Palay Children's Association of Penang) Full recovery recycling company Reclaimtek Shan Poornam Metals TES-AMM c) Logo “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang” discussed the logo as follows. This logo is usable in other area by replacing the symbolic mark on it.

Figure 1-2. Logo of “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌3 (2) Participation from manufactures

a) Two types of contributions For the Pilot Project, two types of participation were offered. One was “Official Supporter” and the other is “Project Cooperator”. The contents of these contributions are shown in the following table. The difference between the two is that “Official Supporter” is publicized, while “Project Cooperator” is not. The common role of these two types of contributors is to provide the data on their domestic sales in the past, so that the Project Team could calculate the collection rate for each brand of e-products.

Table 1-1. “Official Supporter” and “Project Cooperator” Item 1. Official supporter 2. Project Cooperator Contribution to the - The company is allowed to use the logo that shows the company is - Provision of the data on the Pilot Project one of the official supporters (The Project Team consults a way of past supplies of the related usage case-by-case.) e-products in Malaysia (e.g. - Provision of the data on the past supplies of the related e-products in number of television sets Malaysia (e.g. number of television sets supplied in Malaysia for the supplied in Malaysia for the past decade ) past decade.) Benefit of - The participants can obtain the data of how much amount of e-waste - The participants can obtain participation of its brand was collected in the Pilot Project. the data of how much amount - The participants can appeal to the customers, where the Project of e-waste of its brand was Team publicizes the participating companies’ names to the mass collected in the Pilot Project. media. Others - Supporters who attended the opening event held on June 2, 2012 at - TESCO were appreciated. In the event, some promotion goods were distributed to the general public. Cost None None

b) Participants from manufactures (as of 31 Dec., 2012) i) Official Supporter - Toshiba - Epson - Dell - Another one company

ii) Project Cooperator - Three project cooperators participated as of 31 Dec., 2012

1.4 CONCEPT OF PILOT PROJECT SYSTEM

(1) Flow Switching

a) Current problems Currently, e-wastes are majorly dealt with by the conventional recyclers whose handling practices are unsure and not monitored. The e-wastes collected by conventional recyclers are

4 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation then going to the scrap dealers, where e-waste flow is again not monitored and unsure.

Figure 1-3. Problems of the present major flow of e-waste

b) Flow Switching For the Pilot Project system to become successful, it is crucial to switch the major e-waste flow from the current flow to a more reliable channel as shown in the following figure.

Figure 1-4. Flow Switching in the Pilot Project System

(2) How to switch the flow To change the e-waste flow means to change the human behavior. The human behavior can be induced by some ways. One of the most effective ways is to use economic incentives. The reason why e-wastes currently flow to the conventional recyclers is “money”. People can get money, when they bring their e-wastes to the nearest conventional recyclers, even the

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌5 amount is very small. The new system should include certain economic incentives attractive enough to change the discarders’ behavior. In the Pilot Project System, the buying prices set by the full recovery facilities were offered to the discarders. The prices set by the full recovery facilities are competitive enough compared to the prices shown by the conventional recyclers, because the prices set by the full recovery facilities do not include the trade margins which are taken by the conventional recyclers. In addition, other incentives were considered in the Pilot Project System. They are labor saving and time saving. People can save their labor to bring their e-wastes to the conventional recyclers, if the e-wastes are collected at their houses. For this, some home electric appliance shops were invited. They can collect e-wastes when they deliver e-products. Also, as for mobile phones, it is a very good chance to offer end-of-life mobile phones collection upon repurchase at the shop. For this, the cooperation from some mobile phone shops was requested. Supermarkets are perfect places to collect e-wastes. They have large parking lots and the opening hour is very long. The residents can bring their e-wastes when they come for shopping. This may be very convenient for the customer, which could work as an incentive.

Figure 1-5. Concept of the Pilot Project System

(3) Basic system

a) E-waste flow - Home electric appliances shops collect the e-wastes at customers’ houses upon delivery of purchased products. They also receive the e-wastes brought into their shops by customers.

6 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation - Mobile phone shops receive end-of-life mobile phones from customers when they repurchase new ones. In addition, even in the case of no repurchasing, they also receive the used mobile phones brought into their shops by customers. - Hypermarkets receive e-wastes brought by the customers. - Full recovery facilities collect e-wastes at the shops upon request.

Figure 1-6. E-waste flow in the Pilot Project b) Money flow - Upon receiving e-wastes from customers, the shop issues e-waste vouchers to the customers. - The vouchers can be used not only at the shop but also at other shops participating in the Pilot Project. - Every month, the participating shops can issue the invoices to the full-recovery facility attaching used vouchers.

Figure 1-7. Money flow in the Pilot Project

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌7 1.5 PILOT PROJECT COMMENCEMENT

(1) Period of the Pilot Project Period of the Pilot Project was set as follows. MPPP and related organizations are expected to continue it even after the period.

- June 2, 2012 until November 30, 2012 (six months)

(2) Initial participants The participants who started to collect e-wastes under the new system of the Pilot Project from June 2 were set as follows through the discussions in “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”. The autonomy of the participating companies was most considered as important. There was no participation from supermarkets, although it was decided in the “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”. “Sunshine” (a nationwide supermarket chain) in Penang Island, SPASTIC (The “Chrebal Palay Children's Association of Penang”) and MPPP has conducted a computer collection system. This existing collection system remains in parallel with the new system.

Table 1-2. Participants to start collection of e-waste from June 2 Company name Business category Number of shops in Penang Island Ban Hin Bee (BHB) Home electric appliance shop 5 (BHB Outlets) 2 (Kitchentech Outlets) Loo Soon Seng Electrical (LSS) Home electric appliance shop 3 Channel Communication & Mobile phone shop 1 Electronics Centre (CCEC) Sun Win Phone Shop Mobile phone shop 1

(3) Full recovery facility Full recovery facilities of Shan Poornam and TES-AMM (Malaysia) were selected as recyclers in the meeting of “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”. Also, it was confirmed that Reclaimtek would continue to support the existing computer collection system. Shan Poornam and TES-AMM took turns for the transportation weekly, while the invoices from the local businesses were sent to TES-AMM. The two companies collaborated with each other in the financial arrangement.

(4) Initial prices of the common vouchers

a) Price of voucher The prices of the voucher were set out at what was considered reasonable by the full recovery

8 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation facilities by considering the assumed metal concentration depending on the types of the e-wastes, as shown in the following table. It was concluded to use the prices as tentative ones, because the data on the metal concentration of the e-wastes to be collected from households are not well accumulated yet, as well as the prices of the metals are fluctuating according to the metal market. These initial prices are to be reconsidered later after the commencement of the Pilot Project.

Table 1-3. Initial prices of e-wastes E-waste Price Remarks Television set (Brown Tube Type) RM12/Unit Television set (Flat Type) RM15/Unit Refrigerator RM10/Unit Washing machine RM10/Unit Air-conditioner RM20/Unit Full set Personal computer (Desktop) RM5/Unit Personal computer (Notebook) RM5/Unit Printer RM1/Unit Mobile phone RM40/Unit By a lucky draw with 10% hits DVD player, VCD player and etc. RM2/Unit Others RM0/Unit Battery charger, Mobile phone battery, mouse, keyboard, etc.

b) Design of voucher Vouchers were designed so as not to be forged. Special stickers were used on the voucher for this purpose.

Figure 1-8. Common Voucher (Left: front, Right: rear) (Note) The dot means a special sticker so as not to be forged.

1.6 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

(1) Information management system - Shops issue the receipt with four-ply. The four-ply receipts are given to 1) the customer, 2) shops, 3) full recovery facility and 4) “E-waste Alam Alliance”.

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌9 - When the collected e-wastes are sent to full recovery facilities, the transportation slip is issued by the shops. The three-ply transportation slips are given to 1) shops, 2) full recovery facilities and 3) “E-waste Alam Alliance”.

Figure 1-9. Information flow in the Pilot Project

(2) Information forms

a) E-waste receipt There are two kinds of e-waste receipts. One is for home electric appliance shops and supermarkets, and the other is for mobile phone shops which collect only mobile phones. The e-waste receipts comprise 1) purchased units of new products, 2) number of e-wastes applied and 3) brands of the e-wastes. By using the information on brands of e-wastes, the data of amount of e-wastes by brands can be collected.

10 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 1-10. E-waste receipt for home electric appliance shops and supermarkets

Figure 1-11. E-waste receipt for mobile phone shops b) Transportation slip The transportation slip shown in the following figure is commonly used by the different types of shops.

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌11

Figure 1-12. E-waste transportation slip

c) Other data to be collected In addition to the abovementioned data, the following data are to be collected, though not continuously.

- Required time and cost for e-waste collection by home electric appliance shops - Required time and cost for e-waste transportation by full recovery facilities

(3) Data compilation

a) The amount of e-waste collected For the environment, certain amount of e-waste shall be guided to the appropriate recycling routes. Collection percentage of e-waste supplied in the past can be calculated for each brand.

b) Cost structures of the participants in the Pilot Project Certain amount of money is needed for collecting e-wastes properly. How much money is required and how it is borne among the participants will be calculated2.

1.7 ADVERTIsem*nT

(1) Events Two kinds of events are planned for celebrating the launching of the Pilot Project. The mass media were invited to widely announce the Pilot Project.

2 This does not necessarily mean the direct cost bearing. For example, the home electric appliance retailers can contribute by providing the takeback service to the customers upon delivery of the new products. The labor cost can be converted in terms of money.

12 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation a) Launching workshop i) Date and place - June 1, 2012 (Friday) from 9:00 to 12:00 at E&O Hotel

ii) Program - Speeches by the related organizations for celebrating the launching - Explanation of the concept of the Pilot Project - Presentation by the participating local businesses

b) Launching outdoor event i) Date and place - June 2, 2012 (Saturday) from 16:00 to 17:30 at Straits Quay - Exhibition from 12:00 until 21:00

ii) Program - Speeches by the related organizations for celebrating the launching - Traditional dance and songs for celebrating the launching - Lucky draw of latest e-products (gifts were provided from e-products manufactures) - Stamp rally in the exhibition booths for a small gift

iii) Exhibition booths - Related organizations - Participating local businesses - Full recovery facilities - Official Supporters from e-products manufactures - Project Team

(2) Promotion Goods One of the most difficult points regarding promotion goods to advertise the Pilot Project is its flexibility. The promotion goods cannot be used longer, if the information changes, e.g., replacement of participating local businesses, project period, etc. For this reason, only general information was printed on the promotion goods. Utilization of “Facebook” page was proposed by a local business in order to provide further information. The promotion goods were designed so as to guide the customer to the Facebook page.

1. Pilot Project Planning ▌13

Figure 1-13. Promotion goods for guiding the Facebook page

14 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation 2. E VALUATION PLAN AND THE PRE- EVALUATION

2.1 EVALUATION SYSTEM

(1) Evaluation Criteria Five criteria from No. 1 to 5 shown in Figure 2-1 below are commonly used for evaluating the JICA projects. The sixth criteria “Applicability” was added this time by considering that one of the objectives of the Pilot Project is to develop a model applicable to the other area in Malaysia.

Figure 2-1. Evaluation Criteria of the Pilot Project

(2) Evaluation indicators Twelve indicators based on the criteria were set as shown in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2. Evaluation indicators

2. Evaluation plan and the pre-evaluation ▌15 (3) Explanation of evaluation indicators and measuring method Evaluation indicators and measuring methods are summarized in Table 2-1.

Table 2-1. Evaluation Indicators and Measuring Methods Evaluation Evaluation Explanation of the evaluation Measuring methods Criteria indicators indicators 1. Validity 1.1 Physical This indicator expresses the - By interviews and observations validity requirements from the consumers and the capacities of the local businesses participating in the Pilot Project. 1.2 Economic Among many economic

validity aspects regarding the Pilot where:푝푝 푐푐 Project, the price of common 푃 :Price≅ 푃 of the common vouchers used in the voucher shown to the Pilot Project 푃푝푝 consumer are to be used in :Price in the conventional recyclers

evaluation from the viewpoint 푐푐 푃This means that anyone will not discard to the of validity. If the price is not Pilot Project System, if the price of it is much attractive for the customer lower than the price shown by the conventional compared with the price recyclers. shown by the conventional recyclers, the e-waste collection by the Pilot Project does not work well. 2. Effectiveness 2.1 Change in the The Pilot Project System was “Participation Rate” to the Pilot Project discarding behavior designed so as to change the route is defined as: e-waste flow from the Participation Rate= ( ) conventional route to the new 푋푝푝 where: route. This indicator expresses 푋푝푝푝푝ℎ푎푎푎푎∗ 1−�� : Amount of e-waste collected by the Pilot how many people changed Project 푝푝 their behavior. 푋 : Amount of e-products purchased by the customers 푝푝𝑝ℎ푎푎푎푎 푋: Rate of e-waste to be repaired and reused

� The� reason why was considered is that the Pilot Project System was designed so as � not to change the �flow of e-waste to be repaired. The Pilot Project System is not competitive to the repaired route, because the price of e-waste to be repaired is very high compared with the price shown in the Pilot Project. 2.2 Collection rate This is one of the most basic Collection rate is defined as: indicators that show the Collection rate= ( ) performance of the System, 푋푝푝 where: where the e-waste flow 푋푝𝑝푝∗ 1−�� : Amount of e-waste collected by the Pilot change was set as the Project 푝푝 objective. 푋 : Amount of e-products sold in the past This can be calculated for (the years considered depend on the types of 푝𝑝푝 each manufacture. e-푋waste) : Rate of e-waste to be repaired and reused

� 2.3 Policy effect The change of e-waste flow Three� indexes are defined as: can be interpreted from the 1. Hazardousness=1 (in terms of context of new policy 퐹퐹 lead) introduction by using three − 푊 indexes: 1. Hazardousness, 2. 2. Resource recovery= (in terms of 퐹퐹 푊

16 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation Explanation of the evaluation Measuring methods Criteria indicators indicators Resource recovery and 3. precious metals) Traceability. 3. Traceability= (in terms of e-waste). 퐹퐹 where: 푊 W: the amount of discarded e-waste (excluding repair) FR: the amount of e-waste going to the full recovery facilities 3. Efficiency 3.1 Required cost This is one of the most basic < indicators. The required cost can be where : evaluated by comparing with the 푝푝 푐푐 퐶 : Required퐶 cost for the Pilot Project alternative system cost. Collection : Required cost by the conventional service provided by MPPP was set 퐶푝푝 as the alternative system. collection method 퐶푐푐 4. Impact 4.1 Effect on EPR If the manufactures are involved in - By interviews and observations policy making the Pilot Project, the consensus making on EPR policy would be easier. This indicator expresses how the implementation of the Pilot Project affects the consultation with the manufactures. 4.2 Influence to the This indicator expresses how the - By interviews and observations informal and change of e-waste flow affects the conventional informal and conventional recyclers. recyclers 5. Sustainability 5.1 Autonomous This indicator expresses whether - By interviews and observations management after the system can be managed by the the Pilot Project related local organizations autonomously even after the Pilot Project. 5.2 Budget after This indicator expresses that the << the Pilot Project system is not financially where: sustainable, if the system require 퐶푚: Management퐶� cost certain amount management cost. : Total money flow in terms of the issued 푚 common퐶 voucher � 퐶 Here, the management cost was compared with the total money flow. This means the management cost is much cheaper than the total money flow, the system itself might be affordable to cover the management cost. 6. Applicability 6.1 Planning and This indicator expresses the human - Capacities of counterparts (“Capacity implementation in resource availability when Assessment Sheet” will be used.) other areas without expanding to other areas. Japanese Experts If the counterparts got the know-how, they can provide advices to other areas. 6.2 Any unique This indicator expresses whether - Capacities of counterparts (“Capacity factors of the Pilot the system is replicable to other Assessment Sheet” will be used.) Project in Penang areas. - Distance to the nearest full recovery If the system contains any unique factors of Penang, the replicabilitiy facilities is low. Two factors were selected as ones which might be unique to Penang area.

2.2 PRE-EVALUATION BEFORE THE COMMENCEMENT The pre-evaluation of the Pilot Project before its commencement can be summarized as shown in the following table.

2. Evaluation plan and the pre-evaluation ▌17 Table 2-2. Pre-evaluation of the Pilot Project before the commencement valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Pre-evaluation 1. Validity 1.1 Physical validity As shown below, the “Physical Validity” is considered as acceptable except the supermarkets. However, the measures to have supermarkets participate would be sought, because it is very convenient for the customers.

The following results have been obtained from the questionnaire survey on households. - Utilization rate of the existing MPPP’s collection centers is about 7%. The main reasons why people don't use the center are described as "too heavy to carry", "limited opening time" and "distance". - Approximately 70% of the people answered that they would participate in the system if the condition such as “Service taking away from inside the house", "The collection center is located near to my house" and "exchangeable with high value coupon" are met.

Based on the discussion in the working group, this system was selected from among multiple alternatives that were presented, and two home electric appliance shops and two mobile phone shops participated in the Pilot Project.

Supermarkets might be afraid of occurrence of additional costs such as labor costs for operation of collection centers and the costs of keeping e-wastes. Some supermarkets tried to reduce this additional cost by out-sourcing it to a recycler, but so far supermarkets have not decided to participate in the Pilot Project. Participation of supermarkets is still awaited, because it is convenient for customers. Also the common voucher will be more attractive, if it can be used in supermarkets.

Full recovery facilities showed a positive attitude towards the Pilot Project, such as an interest in the increased opportunities to access technological improvement and better knowledge for recycling.

1.2 Economic validity As shown below, the prices of the common voucher are generally lower than the prices shown by the conventional recyclers, which might be 푝푝 resulted in lower participation rate. However, “WTP” (willingness푃 -to-pay) distribution will be푃푐푐 drawn, which tells us how much amount of incentive is required to attain the certain rate of collection. Also, the labor-saving and time-saving aspects of the Pilot Project will be considered.

Table. Comparison of the prices of the conventional recyclers and the Pilot Project Price (RM/kg) Price (RM/unit) Pilot Pilot CR CR Project Project Television (CRT) 0.32 < 0.38 10 < 12 Television (Non-CRT) 0.32 < 0.48 10 < 15 Refrigerator 0.28 > 0.19 15 > 10 Washing machine 0.39 > 0.27 15 > 10 Air-conditioner 1.39 > 0.45 62 > 20 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 1.04 > 0.48 11 > 5 PC (Desktop/ 1.04 > 0.48 11 > 5 Non-CRT) PC (Notebook) 4.25 > 1.75 12 > 5

18 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Pre-evaluation Mobile phone 2.00 < 17.02 0 < 4 Printer ND - 0.20 ND - 1 DVD player, etc. ND - 0.50 ND - 2 Others ND - 0 ND - 0 (Note) CR: Conventional Recycler

2. Effectiveness 2.1 Change of “Participation Rate” of each product can be calculated as shown below by discarding behavior assuming the WTP distribution is linear. As shown later, the average “Participation Rate” is estimated as 37%. Necessary incentive for attaining higher target rate will be considered by analyzing the data obtained from the Pilot Project.

Expected “Participation Rate” to the Pilot Project can be estimated shown in the following table by setting some assumptions shown in Appendix 1.

Table. Expected participation rate to the Pilot Project Expected Price of the Price in the participation rate conventional Pilot Project to the recyclers (RM/unit) Pilot Project (RM/unit) (%) Television (CRT) 12 10 59 Television (Non-CRT) 15 10 74 Refrigerator 10 15 33 Washing machine 10 15 34 Air-conditioner 20 62 16 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 5 11 23 PC (Desktop/ Non-CRT) 5 11 23 PC (Notebook) 5 12 21 Mobile phone 4 0 100 Printer 1 ND ND DVD player, etc. 2 ND ND

Others 0 ND ND 2.2 Collection rate The collection rate can be calculated by using the figures shown in the above table. The total collection rate is 37%.

Table. Expected collection rate Discarded amount Expected Expected (excluding participation rate amount from repair) to the the Pilot Pro (ton/year) Pilot Project (%) (ton) (Year 2012) Television (CRT) 2,274 59 1 Television (Non-CRT) 336 74 Refrigerator 774 33 Washing machine 354 34 Air-conditioner 1,385 16 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 1,080 23 PC (Desktop/ Non-CRT) 727 23 PC (Notebook) 81 21 Mobile phone 21 100 Total 7,032 38 2

The expected amount of e-waste collected by the local businesses participating in the Pilot Project is 144ton/year (12 ton/month) corresponding to 2% of the total e-waste discarded in Penang Island in year 2012 (See Appendix 2).

2.3 Policy effect By using the substance flow analysis explained in “ANNEX I” of the “Progress

2. Evaluation plan and the pre-evaluation ▌19 valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Pre-evaluation Report (1)”, the three indexes can be estimated as below.

1. Hazardousness=1 ( )=42% (Present value=88%) 퐹퐹 ( ) 2. Resource recovery=− 푊 푖푖 푡푡�푡푡 표표 푙�푙푙 =40% (Present value=19%) 퐹퐹 푊 푖푖 푡푡�푡푡 표표 푝𝑝𝑝�푝� 𝑚𝑚𝑚 3. Traceability= ( )=43% (Present value=9%) 퐹퐹 3.Efficiency 3.1 Required cost Required cost 푊 푖푖 for푡푡 the�푡푡 Pilot표표 � Project− 푤𝑤𝑤 is nearly zero, because it can be pressed by the retailers, while the current collection cost by MPPP 푝푝 requires RM270퐶 per ton. Then, < . 푐푐 퐶 ( ) 푝푝 푐푐 Rem: RM270= 퐶 퐶 푅푅 퐶퐶𝐶 푓𝑓 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 표표표 𝑡 푝𝑝 푝�푝� 푐𝑐 𝑐𝑐𝑐 푦� (�� ) �푡푡 4. Impact 4.1 Effect to EPR As shown below,푇𝑇� the푇 푤 Pilot𝑤�ℎ �Project푐𝑐𝑐푐𝑐� is giving푏푏 �ℎ� positive푝𝑝푝�푝� impacts푐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 to the푦𝑦� policy policy making making on EPR.

Two kinds of participation were offered for the manufactures. One is “Official Supporter” and the other one is “Project Cooperator”. As of May 31, five brands participated in two participation scheme. Manufacturers also have a great interest for EPR policies that the government will consider. Manufacturers are taking an active part in the Pilot Project by participating in the workshop, sharing information and also joining “Official Consultative Meeting” coordinated by DOE.

4.2 Influence to the As shown below, the negative impacts on the informal and conventional informal and recyclers are considered to be small. conventional recyclers Personal recyclers and conventional recyclers dealing with recyclables are existent. However, many of them are collecting paper, plastic and iron. Therefore, the impact of the Pilot Project focusing on collecting e-waste is considered not significant. 5.Sustainability 5.1 Autonomous The “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”, which was coordinated by the local management after businesses is capable of taking the responsibility of conducting continuous the Pilot Project monitoring and maintenance.

5.2 Budget after the As shown below, the total amount of the common vouchers to be issued Pilot Project will be much higher than the management cost required . � 퐶 The total amount of the common vouchers to be issued can퐶푚 be estimated as 1,426 thousand RM.

Table. Total amount of the common vouchers issued annually Price of Expected Total amount of voucher amount voucher issued

(RM/kg) (ton) (1000RM/year) Television (CRT) 0.38 1,342 510 Television (Non-CRT) 0.48 249 120 Refrigerator 0.19 255 48 Washing machine 0.27 120 32 Air-conditioner 0.45 222 100 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 0.48 248 119 PC (Desktop/ Non-CRT) 0.48 167 80 PC (Notebook) 1.7 17 29 Mobile phone 17 21 357 Total 0.54 2,641 1,426

6. Applicability 6.1 Planning and The capacity assessment sheet tells that the counterparts understand the implementation in progress of the Pilot Project very well so far.

20 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Pre-evaluation other areas without Japanese Experts 6.2 Any unique According to the capacity assessment sheet, the capacities of MPPP and DOE factors of the Pilot Penang are very high. This might be an obstacle when the Pilot Project will be Project in Penang copied to other areas as a model. However, this means that they can help related organizations in other areas introduce the similar system. The distance of the Pilot Project area from the full recovery facilities in charge of transportation is around 20 km. This is not considered one of the unique factors in Penang Island.

2.3 EVALUATION PLAN The evaluation indicator will be monitored as shown in the following table.

Table 2-3. Evaluation plan Evaluation Evaluation indicator Evaluation plan Aspect 1. Validity 1.1 Physical validity - Continuous interviews and observations 1.2 Economic validity - Discussion with the full recovery facilities in charge on the prices 2. Effectiveness 2.1 Change in the discarding - Data from the monitoring sheets behavior - “Willingness-To-Pay” Analysis - “Questionnaire Survey” to customers (September 2012) 2.2 Collection rate - Data from the monitoring sheets 2.3 Policy effect - Data from the monitoring sheets with the substance flow analysis model 3. Efficiency 3.1 Required cost - “Questionnaire Survey” to the related retailers and the full recovery facilities 4. Impact 4.1 Effect to EPR policy making - Continuous interviews and observations 4.2 Influence to the informal and - Continuous interviews and observations conventional recyclers 5. Sustainability 5.1 Autonomous management - Continuous interviews and observations after the Pilot Project 5.2 Budget after the Pilot - Data from the monitoring sheets Project 6. Applicability 6.1 Planning and - “Capacity Assessment Sheet” implementation in other areas without Japanese Experts 6.2 Any unique factors of the - “Capacity Assessment Sheet” Pilot Project in Penang - Transportation data of the full recovery facilities

2. Evaluation plan and the pre-evaluation ▌21 3. P ILOT P ROJECT I MPLEMENTATION

3.1 PARTICIPATING RETAILERS As explained in 1.5(2), the Pilot Project was commenced with 12 shops and the participants increased to 25 shops as shown in the following table. Some official supporters were quite active in introducing the shops to participate and the Project Team tried to ask the initial retailers to introduce the other potential retailers which may participate in the Pilot Project.

Table 3-1 Participating retailers (as of December 2012) Business type Company name Number of shops

E-products retailers LSS (Loo Soon Seng Electrical) 3 (Trade-in and Walk-in) BHB (Ban Hin Bee) 7

TC Electrical Centre 1

Total 15 shops Wah Lee Chain 1 Chop Seng Hock Electrical (CSH) 3

Mobile phone shop (Walk-in) Channel Communication & Electronics Centre 1

Sun Win Phone Shop 1

Innomax Telecommunication Centre 1

Total 5 shops Impian Communication 1 Multi Communication Enterprise 1

Personal Computer Shop Gadgetzone 2 (Walk-in) NC Computer / Nanyang Digital 1

Mind Maker 1

Total 5 shops E-Tech Computer 1

22 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 3-1. Location of the participating retailers Legend) Square: Home electric appliance shop, Triangle: Mobile phone shop, Circle: Computer shop

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌23 3.2 COLLECTED E-WASTES

(1) Collected e-wastes in terms of number and weight The raw data of collected e-waste in terms of unit and weight are shown in Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3. Mobile phones collected was the most in terms of number, and bulky e-wastes such as television sets, refrigerators and washing machines were major in terms of weight.

Figure 3-2. Number of collected e-waste (as of 31 Dec. 2012)

Figure 3-3. Weight of collected e-waste (as of 31 Dec. 2012)

24 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation (2) Scenes of e-waste collection The following photographs are the scenes of the Pilot Project.

Figure 3-4. E-waste collected by “Walk-in” (LSS)

Figure 3-5. E-waste stored (LSS)

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌25

Figure 3-6. Mobile phones collected (Sun Win Phone Shop)

Figure 3-7. E-waste stored (BHB)

26 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 3-8. E-waste transportation by the full recovery facility (at LSS transported by TES-AMM Malaysia)

3.3 INTERPRETATION OF THE AMOUNT OF E-WASTES COLLECTED

(1) Cooperation rate Here, the raw data are interpreted into the cooperation rate defined by the following expression.

- = . 푄 1 Where퐶퐶 푊∗ 푀푀 ∗ �

- : Quantity of e-waste collected - W : Number of e-waste discarded in Penang Island in a year 푄 - : Market share of the participating retailer - r : recognition rate of the Pilot Project (the rate of people who know about the Pilot Project) 푀푀 As for television sets and air conditioners, the cooperation rates were calibrated by several factors explained in Appendix 3. The calculated cooperation rates are shown in the following figure. The expected cooperation rates obtained from the questionnaire survey conducted in October 2012 were also shown in the same figure. The cooperation rate of air conditioners is much lower than the questionnaire survey. One of the reasons for this is that the shops outsource installation of air conditioners to other companies and cannot ask them take back old air conditioners. In the Pilot Project, no computer or printer was collected in the participating five computer shops, although they started the collection from October 2012. The data used for computers and printers was taken in home electric appliance shops which do not trade any computer or

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌27 printer. The cooperation data of computers and printers are tentative.

Figure 3-9. Comparison of the cooperation rates obtained from the Pilot Project and the questionnaire survey

(2) Willingness to be paid curve The willingness to be paid (WTP) curve can be drawn by using the cooperation rates and the market prices as shown in the following figure. The WTP curve gives us the appropriate voucher price needed for achieving the target collection rate. As for television sets and air conditioners, people do not respond to the change in the voucher prices, while people are affected by the voucher prices as for other e-wastes. This means that the collection rate can be controlled by changing the voucher prices for items other than television sets and air conditioners. For television sets and air conditioners, it is not wise to control the collection rates by the voucher prices. Instead, any other measures for increasing the collection rates are necessary. In addition, the tentative data were used especially for personal computers and printers. It is advisable that data accumulation is very important for further analysis especially for personal computers and printers.

28 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 3-10. Willingness to be paid for each type of e-wastes obtained from the collected e-wastes

Figure 3-11. Willingness to be paid for each type of e-wastes obtained from the questionnaire survey

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌29 3.4 FINDINGS FROM THE PILOT PROJECT

(1) Advantage and disadvantage of each type of e-wastes

a) Measures for improving cooperation rates of television sets The cooperation rate of television sets was lower than expected. Theoretically, it should be higher than 50%. Actually, according to the questionnaire survey, the expected cooperation rate was higher than 50%. People might like to keep their old television sets inside their houses even after they are broken or people might think that the old television sets can be sold with higher prices in the secondhand market. For attaining higher collection rate, it is advisable to have the participating retailers explain to the customers that they can collect all types of e-wastes kept in their houses when the customers buy some bulky e-products at the shops.

b) Potential high collection rate for refrigerators and washing machines The take back system from households worked the most effectively for refrigerators and washing machines. Almost all refrigerators and washing machines were collected in a “Trade-in” manner, because they are too heavy for the consumers to bring to any collection points or to the conventional recyclers. This means that high collection rates are possible for refrigerators and washing machines as far as shops explain about the e-waste collection service to the customers, if the voucher prices are attractive enough for the customer. One of the effective measures to ensure the explanation to the customers was taken during the Pilot Project. The stickers shown in the following picture were distributed and the Project Team asked the shops to put the stickers on e-products with the voucher prices on it. Customers became curious to know what the prices are and shop staff was often asked about the take back services.

Figure 3-12. One trial for improving the collection of bulky e-waste

30 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation c) Structural problem for improving air-conditioner collection The cooperation rate of air-conditioners was so low. One of the major reasons is outsourced installation. Air-conditioners are installed by the special installing teams. It is very common that the installing teams take back the old air-conditioners and recycle them by themselves. So it is difficult to control the outsourced installing team. It is necessary to solve this structural problem for improving the cooperation rate of air-conditioners.

d) Improvement of the system in personal computer shops No computer or printer was collected in five computer shops for three month from October 2012. The reasons are: 1) some computer shops in malls are located in upper floor and it bothers customers to bring computers and printers to the shops; 2) the voucher prices are much lower than their expectation; and 3) there are many competitors which collect computers coordinated by NGOs. Unlike bulky e-wastes, the shops cannot offer e-waste collection services to their customers; instead the customers should bring their old equipment to the shops. The computer collection can be improved by offering higher voucher prices and more advertisem*nt of the existence of the Pilot Project.

e) Win-win e-waste collection for mobile phones Mobile phone shops and households have incentives for mobile phone collection. Mobile phone shops had been asked by the customers whether they have a collection service for old mobile phones, while households who kept old mobile phones cared that some hazardous substances might be leaked from the mobile phones, but they could not find any discarding channel so far. By starting the collection, the shops could increase customers’ satisfaction and some customer found a discarding channel. As mobile phones do not need a large storage space, it is easy for mobile phone shops to start the collection. It is possible to expand the mobile phone collection further by inviting more mobile phone shops widely and advertising about the collection system more actively at the participating shops.

(2) Other findings

a) Retailers’ difficulties Retailers had two major difficulties. One is to do with the relationships with conventional recyclers, and the other is regarding the difficulty in securing the storage spaces. Retailers sold their e-wastes to conventional recyclers before the Pilot Project upon request from their customers, and the staff of the retailers got some margin for it. The managers of the participating retailers had to persuade their employees to quit this convention, when they joined in the Pilot Project.

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌31 As for securing the storage spaces, retailers tried to solve this constraint by asking the full recovery facilities to transport the collected and stored e-wastes more often. However, due to the limitation of the resource of the full recovery facilities, the full recovery facilities could not provide enough transportation services to the retailers. It was easy for the retailers to ask the conventional recyclers to come and pick up the collected e-wastes upon their request. Due to above two difficulties, some retailers wanted to go back to the conventional trade from the Pilot Project. It can be pointed out that asking the retailers to understand the significance of the Pilot Project is very important for getting their continuous cooperation.

b) Difficulty in paper works Some retailers had a trouble in managing the receipts and the transportation slips. The logistics of their delivery services are not simple. A shop in a retailing chain does not necessarily have the product stock. Such a shop just orders to the head office to deliver the e-products to the customer and the delivery staff starts from the warehouse. Some such shops had a difficulty in how to manage the e-waste receipt so as to fit in their original procedure, where the receipts are supposed to be handled by the delivery staff.

Each shop has its original paper work procedure and logistic system. The paper works should be designed so as to fit to their system.

c) Lucky draw for mobile phones From June to October, a lucky draw was used to issue the e-waste voucher only for mobile phones. RM4 for a mobile phone was thought not to be attractive and RM40 with 10% hits in the lucky draw would be more attractive to motivate people to bring their mobile phones. But managing such a lucky draw system proved to be not so easy. Some shops could not manage the 10% of hit probability. Finally, the lucky draw was cancelled after confirming that it might not affect the attractiveness.

3.5 COST ANALYSIS

(1) Direct cost The running cost was designed to be minimal by considering the financial sustainability. The required materials for the Pilot Project are 1) printing of the vouchers, 2) printing of the receipt and transportation slips and 3) any advertisem*nt tools if necessary. Assuming that one voucher is given and one piece of the receipt is used for one e-waste, the cost is only RM0.3 for printing. Production of advertisem*nt tools can be considered as a fixed cost and the price for one shop is around RM200 – 300.

32 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation (2) Additional cost for retailers The participating retailers have to bear the additional cost for delivery. Delivery staff has to deliver not only new products to the consumers but also e-wastes collected from the customers to their storage space in the Pilot Project. The additional cost for e-waste delivery can be estimated to be RM0.37 per e-waste as shown in Appendix 4.1.

(3) Voucher reclaiming The total value of collected e-wastes correspond to nearly RM2500 as of 31 Dec. 2012 as shown in the following figure, while the reclaimed vouchers from the participating retailers are less than RM2000. Only 76% of the issued voucher was reclaimed. This gap between the collected e-waste and the voucher reclaimed could be used for the direct system management cost.

Figure 3-13. Collected e-waste in terms of money and voucher reclaimed

3.6 TRIAL ANALYSIS FOR FUTURE EXPANSION

(1) Required voucher price and prevalence rate for achieving a target collection rate When a target collection rate is set, two strategies can be taken. One is putting more advertisem*nt for raising the prevalence rate, and the other is using a higher voucher price. The following figures which were drawn by the definition explained in Appendix 5 are the equivalent curves for achieving a target collection rate. The prevalence rate in the figures can be calculated by multiplying geographical coverage (or market share of the participating retailers) and people’s recognition rate.

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌33 For example, for refrigerators shown in Figure 3-14, when the target collection rate of 10% is given, and if 30% of the prevalence rate is expected, then RM15 of the voucher price is enough. When the target collection rate of 30% is given, and if the voucher price can be set at RM18, then the prevalence should be ensured at 60%. These figures should be reviewed and revised by using more data. Among the figures, as for television sets and air conditioners, the WTP curves obtained from the questionnaire survey were used. These equivalent curves are just tentative, but these were described for further discussion.

Figure 3-14. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (TV) Note: the WTP curve obtained from “Questionnaire survey” was used. TCR: Target Collection Rate

34 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 3-15. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Refrigerator) Note: TCR: Target Collection Rate

Figure 3-16. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Washing machine) Note: TCR: Target Collection Rate

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌35

Figure 3-17. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Air-conditioner) Note: the WTP curve obtained from “Questionnaire survey” was used. TCR: Target Collection Rate

Figure 3-18. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Personal computer) Note: TCR: Target Collection Rate

36 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure 3-19. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Printer) Note: TCR: Target Collection Rate

Figure 3-20. Required voucher price and prevalence rate so as to achieve target collection rates (Mobile phone) Note: TCR: Target Collection Rate

(2) Required budget for additional voucher prices Total required budget can be estimated by the following equation when the target collection rate and the expected prevalence rate are set.

- RB(TCR, PR) = W TCR (Pv(TCR) Pf)

∗ ∗ −

3. Pilot Project Implementation ▌37 Where

- TCR: Target collection rate (%) - PR: Prevalence rate (%) - RB(TCR, PR): Required budget for achieving the TCR when the expected prevalence rate=PR. - W: the amount of discarded e-waste in a year (fresh e-waste) - Pv(TCR): Required voucher price for achieving the TCR - Pf: Price shown by the licensed recycler

The following figure is an example of the total required budget for achieving some target collection rate when the expected prevalence rate is set as 75%.

Figure 3-21. Total required budget for achieving some target collection rates

38 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation 4. P OST- E VALUATION ON THE P ILOT P ROJECT

The post-evaluation of the Pilot Project after its implementation as of December 2012 can be summarized as shown in the following table.

Table 4-1. Post-evaluation of the Pilot Project after the implementation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation 1. Validity 1.1 Physical validity As shown below, the “Physical Validity” is considered acceptable except for the supermarkets. However, the measures to have supermarkets participate would be sought, because it is very convenient for the customers.

According to the questionnaire survey to households conducted in Oct. 2012, the Pilot Project was evaluated positive as shown in the following figures. - 95% of respondents marked more than “Good” for the collection of home electric appliances. - 82% of respondents marked more than “Good” for the collection of personal computers. - 71% of respondents marked more than “Good” for the collection of mobile phones.

Figure. Overall evaluation on the Pilot Project by customers

Figure. Overall evaluation on the Pilot Project by customers

4. Post-evaluation on the Pilot Project ▌39 valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation

Figure. Overall evaluation on the Pilot Project by customers

The reasons why the customers evaluated the e-waste collection positive were different by the types of e-wastes as shown below. Economic incentives for households by giving the e-waste vouchers could motivate people to discard their e-wastes to the Pilot Project. Besides, as for home electric appliances, space consumption factor could be a motivation to discard the e-waste to the Pilot Project. - As for home electric appliances, the major reason why the respondents evaluated the e-waste collection positive was “The used electrical goods are consuming space in my house”. - As for personal computers, the respondents evaluated the e-waste collection positive, because it contributes the environment and ensures human health as well as the e-waste voucher is given to discarders. - As for mobile phones, the reason motivated respondents most was the voucher.

1 The used electrical goods are consuming 71.4 space in my house.

2 The used electrical goods could cause health 30.4 or environmental impact in my house.

3 This shop will come to collect the E-waste 33.9 from my house.

4 I can get the E-waste common voucher for 25.0 shopping.

5 I want to contribute to environment protection. 16.1

6 Others 0.0

NA 0.0

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 (%) (N=56) Figure. The reason why the respondents evaluated the e-waste collection positive

40 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation

1 The used computer(s)/printer(s) are 31.6 consuming space in my house.

2 The used computer(s)/printer(s) could cause 47.4 health or environmental impact in my house. 3 This shop receives used computer(s)/printer(s) if we bring in them even 2.6 Saturday or Sunday. 4 I can get the E-waste common voucher for 47.4 shopping.

5 I want to contribute to environment protection. 26.3

6 Others 0.0

NA 0.0

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 (%) (N=38) Figure. The reason why the respondents evaluated the e-waste collection positive

1 The used mobile phones are consuming 12.8 space in my house.

2 The used mobile phones could cause health 17.9 or environmental impact in my house.

3 This shop receives used mobile phones if we 5.1 bring in them even Saturday or Sunday.

4 I can get the E-waste common voucher 76.9 (40RM) for shopping if I can draw hit.

5 I want to contribute to environment protection. 35.9

6 Others 0.0

NA 0.0

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 (%) (N=39) Figure. The reason why the respondents evaluated the e-waste collection positive

The Pilot Project was started on June 2, 2012 with 12 retailing shops. The number of the participants increased to 25 after the commencement of the Pilot Project. This increase in the number of participants shows the high physical validity for e-product retailers. One of the active retailers utilized the e-waste collection as their company strategy by publishing their advertisem*nt in the newspaper. Participating in the e-waste collection itself could provide a strategic motivation to the retailers. Also the retailers are often asked by their customers whether they provide e-waste collection or not. This is also a motivation for the retailers to participate in the Pilot Project. Thus the physical validity of the e-waste retailers can be estimated high.

Supermarkets did not participate in the Pilot Project. One of the obstacles was assignment of staff for e-waste receiving. Unlike e-product retailers which talk with the customers face to face, supermarkets would have to assign at least one person to receive e-wastes from their customers. Participation of supermarkets is still awaited, because it is convenient for customers and the common voucher will be more attractive, if the vouchers can be used in supermarkets.

Full recovery facilities showed a positive attitude towards the Pilot Project, such as an interest in the increased opportunities to access technological

4. Post-evaluation on the Pilot Project ▌41 valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation improvement and better knowledge for recycling.

1.2 Economic validity As shown below, the prices of the common voucher are generally lower than the prices shown by the conventional recyclers, which might be 푝푝 resulted in lower participation rate. However, the participation푃 rate was not zero. “WTP” (willingness푃푐푐 -to-pay) distribution was drawn, which tells us how much amount of incentive is required to attain the certain rate of collection. As for the bulky e-waste such as refrigerator and washing machine, takeback service upon delivery of new purchased e-products increased the willingness of the customer by adding the incentive on the voucher prices.

Table. Comparison of the prices of the conventional recyclers and the Pilot Project Price (RM/kg) Price (RM/unit) Pilot Pilot CR CR Project Project Television (CRT) 0.32 < 0.38 10 < 12 Television (Non-CRT) 0.32 < 0.48 10 < 15 Refrigerator 0.28 > 0.19 15 > 10 Washing machine 0.39 > 0.27 15 > 10 Air-conditioner 1.39 > 0.45 62 > 20 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 1.04 > 0.48 11 > 5 PC (Desktop/ 1.04 > 0.48 11 > 5 Non-CRT) PC (Notebook) 4.25 > 1.75 12 > 5 Mobile phone 2.00 < 17.02 0 < 4 Printer ND - 0.20 ND - 1 DVD player, etc. ND - 0.50 ND - 2 Others ND - 0 ND - 0 (Note) CR: Conventional Recycler

Figure. WTP curve

2. Effectiveness 2.1 Change of “Cooperation Rate” for each product was observed as shown in the figure. discarding behavior As for television sets and air conditioners, the cooperation rates were rather low. Further improvement is needed for higher cooperation rates. For computers and printers, the performance was quite low. Further improvement such as more advertisem*nt is needed.

42 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation

Figure. Cooperation rate obtained from the Pilot Project

2.2 Collection rate The collection rate can be calculated by using the figures shown in the above table. The total collection rate is 9%.

Table. Collection rate in the Pilot Project Discarded amount Expected Expected (excluding participation rate amount from repair) to the the Pilot Project (ton/year) Pilot Project (%) (ton) (Year 2012) Television 2,610 16 425 Refrigerator 774 16 124 Washing machine 354 26 90 Air-conditioner 1,385 1 20 PC 1,888 1 13 Printer 2 2 10 Mobile phone 21 61 13 Total 7,598 9 696 Note: The discarded amount of printers was calculated assuming that 30% of total number of computers is accompanied by a printer when discarded.

2.3 Policy effect By using the substance flow analysis explained in “ANNEX I” of the “Progress Report (1)”, the three indexes can be estimated as below.

1. Hazardousness=1 ( )=77% (Present value=88%) 퐹퐹 ( ) 2. Resource recovery=− 푊 푖푖 푡푡�푡푡 표표 푙�푙푙 =21% (Present value=19%) 퐹퐹 푊 푖푖 푡푡�푡푡 표표 푝𝑝𝑝�푝� 𝑚𝑚𝑚 3. Traceability= ( )=18% (Present value=9%) 퐹퐹 3.Efficiency 3.1 Required cost Required cost 푊 푖푖 for푡푡 the�푡푡 Pilot표표 � Project− 푤𝑤𝑤 is nearly zero, because it can be pressed by the retailers, while the current collection cost by MPPP 푝푝 requires RM270퐶 per ton. Then, < . 푐푐 퐶 ( ) 푝푝 푐푐 Rem: RM270= 퐶 퐶 푅푅 퐶퐶𝐶 푓𝑓 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 표표표 𝑡 푝𝑝 푝�푝� 푐𝑐 𝑐𝑐𝑐 푦� (�� ) �푡푡 푇𝑇�푇 푤𝑤�ℎ� 푐𝑐𝑐푐𝑐� 푏푏 �ℎ� 푝𝑝푝�푝� 푐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 푦𝑦� The pressed cost borne by the retailers were estimated by the cost survey explained in Appendix 4.1. The additional cost for the retailers taking back e-waste from their customers was estimated at RM0.37 per unit of e-waste.

4. Post-evaluation on the Pilot Project ▌43 valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation This additional cost can be considered small enough compared with the voucher prices. 4. Impact 4.1 Effect to EPR As shown below, the Pilot Project gave positive impacts to the policy making policy making on EPR.

Two kinds of participation were offered for the manufactures. One is to participate as “Official Supporter” and the other one as “Project Cooperator”. As of Dec. 31, 2012, five brands participated in two participation scheme. Some of them were quite active in contributing to the Pilot Project. They introduced some retailers in their business network and the retailers participated in the Pilot Project. Manufacturers took an active part in the Pilot Project by participating in the workshop, shared information and also joined “Official Consultative Meeting” coordinated by DOE. The Official Consultative Meetings were held three times until Dec. 31, 2012 and the Progress of the Pilot Project was introduced. The report on the Pilot Project contributed to realize constructive discussions.

4.2 Influence to the As shown below, the negative impacts on the informal and conventional informal and recyclers can be evaluated small. conventional recyclers Personal recyclers and conventional recyclers dealing with recyclables are existent. However, many of them are collecting paper, plastic and iron. Complains from such actors were not heard regarding the Pilot Project. 5.Sustainability 5.1 Autonomous The “E-waste Alam Alliance – Penang”, which was formed by the local management after businesses and coordinated by MPPP and DOE Penang, may take the the Pilot Project responsibility of conducting continuous monitoring and maintenance.

DOE, DOE Penang and MPPP discussed the future formation of the Pilot Project. MPPP showed their intention to support the Pilot Project in the future by collaborating with DOE Penang. A “Standard Operating Procedure” with management formation was developed.

5.2 Budget after the As shown below, the total amount of the common vouchers issued was Pilot Project 76% of reclaimed voucher. The gap can be used as the budget for � management as the management cost =RM0.3 per e-waste퐶 is small enough. 퐶푚

Figure. Comparison of collected e-waste in terms of money value and

44 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation valuation aspect Evaluation indicators Post-evaluation reclaimed voucher

6. Applicability 6.1 Planning and The capacity assessment sheet tells that the counterparts understood the implementation in progress of the Pilot Project very well so far. other areas without Japanese Experts Series of “Taskforce” meetings were held for discussing the Pilot Project. This was effective in developing the capacities of the counterparts.

6.2 Any unique Any unique factors were not found. The model developed in Penang Island factors of the Pilot could be used in other areas. Project in Penang The resources required for the Pilot Project are existence of e-product retailers and licensed recyclers. These can be available in all areas. Any contribution from the state governments and local councils may increase the possibility on the e-waste collection in their areas.

4. Post-evaluation on the Pilot Project ▌45 5. R ECOMMENDATIONS

(1) Succession of the Pilot Project The Pilot Project was designed by considering project sustainability. It does not need a lot of management cost. It is expected that MPPP, DOE and other related agencies will succeed the Pilot Project.

(2) More participation from retailers The number of the participating retailers is just 25 shops as of 31 December 2012. More participation is needed for further e-waste collection. It is advisable to plan an expansion plan with increased number of participants in the future.

(3) Data accumulation and update of WTP curves The duration of the Pilot Project was only for several months and some retailers just joined in last October. Longer data accumulation is needed. By using more data, the WTP curves can be updated for further improvement.

46 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Appendices

Appendix 1. Expected cooperation rate defined for the pre-evaluation before commencement

1. Definition of WTP (Willingness To be PAID) distribution The following model shows how the discarders change their behavior. If the price of the Pilot Project is the same as the price shown by the conventional recyclers, the expected participation rate to the Pilot Project will be 50%. In case that the price in the Pilot Project is lower than the price of the conventional recycler, then the expected participation rate to the Pilot Project will be lower than 50%.

Figure. WTP model of the discarding behavior

However, in the timing before the Pilot Project commencement, no one knows the WTP distribution curve. So here, simply, it was assumed that the WTP distribution is linear.

Figure. Assumed WTP model of the discarding behavior

2. Other assumptions - The convenience of the Pilot Project or the opportunity cost of the occupied space by the e-waste in the house is not considered. - The announcement effect of the Pilot Project is not considered. This model assumes that peoples’ behavior is determined only by the prices.

Appendix 1. Expected cooperation rate defined for the pre-evaluation before commencement ▐49 3. Expected “Participation Rate” The expected participation rate to the Pilot Project is shown in the following Table.

Table. Expected participation rate to the Pilot Project Expected Price of the Price in the participation conventional Pilot Project rate to the recyclers (RM/unit) Pilot Project (RM/unit) (%) Television (CRT) 12 10 59 Television (Non-CRT) 15 10 74 Refrigerator 10 15 33 Washing machine 10 15 34 Air-conditioner 20 62 16 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 5 11 23 PC (Desktop/ Non-CRT) 5 11 23 PC (Notebook) 5 12 21 Mobile phone 4 0 100 Printer 1 ND ND DVD player, etc. 2 ND ND Others 0 ND ND

4. Expected amount of e-waste to be collected by using the Pilot Project System when expanded to the whole Penang Island The expected amount of e-waste to be collected by using the Pilot Project System assuming that the system is expanded to the whole Penang Island can be calculated as below, by multiplying the discarded amount with the expected participation rate shown in the section 3 above. Average participation rate results in 38%.

Table. Expected amount of e-waste to be collected by using the Pilot Project System when expanded to the whole Penang Island Discarded amount Expected Expected (excluding participation rate amount from repair) to the the Pilot Project (ton/year) Pilot Project (%) (ton) (Year 2012) Television (CRT) 2,274 59 1,342 Television (Non-CRT) 336 74 249 Refrigerator 774 33 255 Washing machine 354 34 120 Air-conditioner 1,385 16 222 PC (Desktop/ CRT) 1,080 23 248 PC (Desktop/ Non-CRT) 727 23 167 PC (Notebook) 81 21 17 Mobile phone 21 100 21 Total 7,032 38 2,641

50 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation Appendix 2. Expected amount of e-waste to be collected by the Local Businesses The expected amount of e-waste to be collected by the following local businesses was calculated.

1. Participating local businesses (as of June 2) Company name Business category Number of shops in Penang Island Ban Hin Bee (BHB) Home electric appliance shop 5 Loo Soon Seng Electrical (LSS) Home electric appliance shop 3 Channel Communication & Mobile phone shop 1 Electronics Centre (CCEC) Sun Win Phone Shop Mobile phone shop 1.

2. Equation for calculating the expected amount of e-waste collected by the participating local businesses The expected amount of e-waste in the Pilot Project can be calculated by

=

푋wh� ere푁 � ∗ 푤 ∗ � - : Expected amount to be collected in the Pilot Project (ton) - : Number of units sold by the local businesses3 푋� - : Weight of e-waste per unit 푁� - : Participation rate of customers. 푤 By using this equation was calculated as: � =144 ton/year. (12 ton/month)푋� 푋Thi� s corresponds to 2% of the total amount of e-waste discarded in Penang Island in year 2012.

3 This data is confidential.

Appendix 2. Expected amount of e-waste to be collected by the Local Businesses ▐51 Appendix 3. Definition of “Cooperation Rate”

1. Thoughts for defining “Cooperation Rate” - The market shares of the participating retailers should be considered for normalizing the data.

2. Definition

(1) Definition of raw cooperation rate An expression of the cooperation rate by considering the market shares of the participating shops is

- = . 푄 Where퐶퐶 푊∗ 푀푀

- : Quantity of e-waste collected - W : Number of e-waste discarded in Penang Island in a year 푄 - : Market share of the participating retailer

푀� Here the market share can be defined as

- MS = . �푆 Where 퐷

- : Sales of the participating retailer - : Present domestic supply to Penang Island �푆 (2) Calculation퐷 of raw cooperation rate The cooperation rate calculated by using the definition above can be shown as below.

52 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure. Raw cooperation rate

(3) Consideration of recognition rate The raw cooperation rate is lower due to the low awareness among the people. It should be calibrated by using the people’s recognition rate on the Pilot Project, as the pricing model can work under the condition that all discarders know the presence of the Pilot Project. The raw cooperation rate should be blown up by considering the recognition rate. The recognition data can be obtained from the questionnaire survey conducted in Oct. 2012. There are two kinds of the recognition rates shown in the following figure. One is the recognition rate before visiting the retailers, and the other is the one after visiting the retailers. Here, the recognition rate after visiting the retailers was used.

Appendix 3. Definition of “Cooperation Rate” ▐53

Figure. Rate of people who know the Pilot Project (Recognition rate)

(4) Definition of cooperation rate by considering the recognition rate Here, the definition of the cooperation rate can be expressed by considering the recognition rate as

- = . 푄 1 Where퐶퐶 푊∗ 푀푀 ∗ �

- : Quantity of e-waste collected - W : Number of e-waste discarded in Penang Island in a year 푄 - : Market share of the participating retailer - r : Recognition rate of the Pilot Project (the rate of people who know the Pilot Project) 푀푀 (5) Calculation of cooperation rate and evaluation The calculated cooperation rate can be seen in the following figure. The cooperation rates obtained from the questionnaire survey were shown in the same figure for evaluating the cooperation data of the Pilot Project.

54 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure. Comparison of the cooperation rates obtained from the Pilot Project and the questionnaire survey

(6) Evaluation on the cooperation rates In general, there are gaps between the perceptible willingness to pay and the actual action. The perceptible willingness to pay can be obtained from the questionnaire survey and the actual action can be seen by the cooperation rates in the Pilot Project. Here, the cooperation rates were evaluated by comparing the two cooperation rates for finding the structural characteristics of e-wastes.

i) Refrigerator, washing machine and mobile phones The cooperation rates of refrigerator, washing machine and mobile phones seem reasonable, even though the cooperation rate of refrigerator seems a little bit low.

ii) Television sets, air conditioners, personal computers and printers The cooperation rates of television sets, air conditioners, personal computers and printers are lower than the data obtained from the questionnaire survey. There may be some reasons why these cooperation rates are low. The cooperation rates should be calibrated by the structural characteristics if necessary. As for television sets, the cooperation rate was lower than 50%, nevertheless the voucher price set for television sets was much higher than the market price. The voucher price used was RM12 for television sets with CRT and RM15 for television sets with non-CRT, while the market price of television sets is RM6. This means the WTP curve cannot be described for television sets. It is concluded that some sort of calibration is needed for the cooperation rate for television sets. As for air conditioners, the cooperation rate was much lower than the cooperation rate

Appendix 3. Definition of “Cooperation Rate” ▐55 obtained from the questionnaire survey. According to the interviews with the participating shops, shops outsource installation of air conditioners to other companies. This may cause the low cooperation rate. It is necessary to calibrate the cooperation rate for air conditioners. Also, as for personal computers and printers, the cooperation rates were much lower than the questionnaire survey. One of the reasons why the cooperation rates were low can be considered that the raw data were obtained from only home electrical appliance shops which do not trade computers and printers, because no computer and printer was collected in the computer shops. However, the cooperation rate for personal computers and printers was not calibrated, because more data are needed for further analysis.

(7) Calibration of data distortion of television sets and air-conditioner

i) Television sets Television sets might be easier to be kept in households than other products, which results in the low cooperation rate of television sets. This can be called as “Kept-in” factor. The cooperation rate for television was calibrated by considering this “Kept-in” factor. The equation can be described as:

( ) = - ( ) 퐶퐶퐶𝐶𝐶𝐶퐶𝐶𝐶� 푃𝑃𝑃푃𝑃푃𝑃� 퐹퐾𝐾𝐾� 퐶퐶퐶𝐶𝐶�퐶𝐶𝐶� 푄𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ii) Air-conditioner Air-conditioners are installed by the special installing teams. Commonly, retailers outsource installing teams. It is very common that the installing teams take back the old air-conditioners and recycle them by themselves. So it is difficult to control the outsourced installing team. This may be the reason of the low cooperation rate of air-conditioners. This can be called as “Taken-out” factor. The “Taken-out” factor can be defined, as same as television sets, as:

( ) = - ( ) 퐶퐶퐶𝐶𝐶𝐶퐶𝐶𝐶� 푃𝑃𝑃푃𝑃푃𝑃� 퐹푇�푇𝑇푇𝑇 퐶퐶퐶𝐶𝐶�퐶𝐶𝐶� 푄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄 3. WTP distribution by using the calibrated cooperation rates

(1) Market prices The market prices are necessary when drawing WTP curves. The market prices provide us the point which shows 50% cooperation in WTP figures.

56 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Figure. Market price of each type of e-wastes

(2) WTP (Pilot Project) The WTP curves by using the cooperation rate including calibrated ones and the market prices can be shown in the following figure.

Figure. Willingness to be paid curves in the Pilot Project

Appendix 3. Definition of “Cooperation Rate” ▐57 Appendix 4. Cost analysis

1. Collection cost borne by the participating retailers

(1) Cost items to consider The participating retailers bear the following costs regarding e-waste collection.

- Personnel cost for explaining to customers - Personnel cost for paper works such as receipt management - Transportation cost for taking back e-wastes from households Among these items, only transportation cost was considered, because the personnel costs can be negligible compared with the time use for the original business as well as it could be too much burden for the participating retailers to separate their time uses from the original ones and the additional ones for e-waste collection.

(2) Model The transportation cost was modeled as bellow.

- TC = D pf/ef + T ps Where ∗ ∗ - TC : Transportation cost by the participating retailers (RM/year) - D : Travel distance (km/year) - pf : Fuel price (RM/liter) - ef : Fuel efficiency (km/liter) - T : Total required time (hr/year) - ps : Salary for staff (RM/person/hr) Here, change of “T” can be focused, because e-waste collection does not change traveling distance. E-wastes were taken back from only households who bought some new products. The required time “T” for collection can be expressed as:

- T = a P + b E + c Where ∗ ∗ - P : Number of delivered products - E : Number of collected e-wastes - a, b : Required time for one unit of products and e-wastes whose dimensions are hr/unit. Here, the parameters a, b and c can be regressed by using any statistical method such as the least square method. The data were collected from the participating retailers until December 2012. This gives us:

- T = 6.67187 + 0.04111 P + 0.05459 E

∗ ∗

58 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation Now, the additional cost for e-waste collection (ΔC) can be obtained by setting the salary per hour as:

- C = b ps (RM/Unit)=0.05459 (hr/Unit)*6.75(RM/hr)=RM0.37/Unit

∆ ∗ 2. Cost structure of the full recovery facilities The characteristics of the transportation cost and dismantling cost by the full recovery facilities are different from the cost borne by the participating retailers. The cost of the full recovery facilities are already deducted and considered in their prices for buying the collected e-wastes, while the cost borne by the retailers are additional cost for e-waste collection.

(1) Cost structure The cost structure of the full recovery facilities were modeled by the following expression.

- = (1 + ) ( ) Where 푃� � ∗ �� − 퐷� − 푇 - r : the indirect cost rate (can be set as 0.1) - : the expected price by the full recovery facility of e-waste i - : the expected sales from selling materials contained in e-waste i 푃� - : the personnel cost for dismantling e-waste i �� - T : Transportation cost for one e-waste 퐷�

Here, if both the material component ratio contained in e-wastes in terms of money and the required time for dismantling e-waste are available, the expected buying price can be calculated. The transportation cost can be analyzed as below.

(2) Transportation cost

i) Model The transportation cost data with some condition data of 1) number of visiting places and 2) number of transported e-wastes. The transportation cost is assumed to be affected by 1) number of visiting places, 2) number of bulky e-wastes and 3) number of non-bulky e-wastes as expressed below.

- = + + + Where 퐶푇 퐶 � ∗ 푀 푏 ∗ 푁퐵 푐 ∗ 푁푁� - : Transportation cost (RM) - : Number of visiting places in a trip 퐶푇 - : Number of collected bulky e-wastes 푀 - : Number of collected non-bulky e-wastes 푁퐵 - , , , : Parameters to be given by a regression 푁푁� 퐶 � 푏 푐

Appendix 4. Cost analysis ▐59 ii) Result of regression By using the data as of December 2012, the model was estimated below.

- ( ) = 50 + 20 + 3.2 + 0.75

퐶푇 𝑅 ∗ 푀 ∗ 푁퐵 ∗ 푁푁� Here, if

- = 5 , = 2.4 Then 푁퐵 ∗ 푀 푁푁� ∗ 푁퐵

( ) = 50 + 20 + 3.2 + 0.75 2.4 = 50 + 9 = 50 + 3.75 5퐵 푇 푁 퐵 퐵 퐵 푁� 퐶 𝑅 ∗ ∗ 푁 ∗ ∗ 푁 ∗ 푁 ∗ 푁

If the number of collected e-waste become larger enough in the future, here, , can be estimated as below. 푁퐵 푁푁� - ( ) = ( )/ 9/Unit - ( ) = ( ) 3.75/Unit 푃푇 퐵 퐶푇 𝑅 푁퐵 → 𝑅 푃푇 푁� 퐶푇 𝑅 → 𝑅

60 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation Appendix 5. Equivalent curve for achieving a target collection rate Once the WTP curves can be drawn, the equivalent curves for achieving a target collection rate can be defined by taking two factors: prevalence rate and voucher price. The function form can be expressed by

- = ( ). 푃� − 푎+푏∗푉푉 W퐶퐶here1+ �

- CR: Target collection rate - PR: Prevalence rate - VP: Voucher price

Appendix 5. Equivalent curve for achieving a target collection rate ▐61 Appendix 6. Instruction Manuals for Shops

1. Instruction Manual for Home Electric Appliance Shops

62 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation Appendix 6. Instruction Manuals for Shops ▐63

64 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation 2. Instruction Manual for Mobile Phone Shops

Appendix 6. Instruction Manuals for Shops ▐65

66 ▌Annex IV. Pilot Project Plan with Evaluation

Malaysia the Project for Model Development for E-Waste Collection, Segregation and Transportation from Households for Recycling (2024)

FAQs

What is the waste management strategy in Malaysia? ›

Malaysia's Federal government has set a target recycling rate of 40 percent by 2025. In the 12th Malaysia Plan prepared by the government's Economic Planning Unit, advancing environmental sustainability is a key theme.

What are the challenges of e-waste management in Malaysia? ›

The challenges in managing e-waste in Malaysia include increasing e-waste generation, lack of household awareness and behavior, and difficulties in implementing government policies.

What is the current practice of waste management in Malaysia? ›

Currently, the waste management approach being employed is landfill, but due to rapid development and lack of space for new landfills, Malaysian states are switching to incineration.

What are the types of e-waste in Malaysia? ›

Industrial and household e-waste are the main e-waste streams in Malaysia. Industrial e-waste typically include WEEE generated by industries (e.g. discarded copper cables), whereas household e-waste are produced from residences and commercial institutions (Suja et al., 2014, Masrom, 2017).

Is Malaysia successful in recycling? ›

PETALING JAYA: While Malaysia aims to achieve a national recycling rate of 40% by 2025, the recycling performance of Malaysians is still low, standing at around 33.17% in 2022.

What is the Malaysian approach to sustainable development? ›

All the subsequent 5-year Malaysia development plans have underscored the elements of sustainable development encompassing sustainable economic growth, growth with equitable distribution to all sections of society, access to basic infrastructure and utilities, access to education and healthcare services and ...

How is waste collected in Malaysia? ›

Malaysia is heavily dependent on landfilling as a method of waste disposal, and as a result, severe space constraints, health issues, and environmental issues will eventually affect the country.

What is the new approach for waste management? ›

New approaches in SWM are adopted to ensure that it is comprehensive, organized, cost-effective, creates wealth, environment friendly and protects public health. The 4Rs in waste management are Reduction, Recycling, Reuse and Recovery. This is a process by which the size of waste is reduced as much as possible.

What is the code for e-waste in Malaysia? ›

In Malaysia, used electrical and electronic assemblies or otherwise commonly known as e-waste are categorized as scheduled wastes under the code SW 110, First Schedule, Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005.

Why is there excessive waste in Malaysia? ›

The amount of waste generated continues to increase due to the increasing population and development, and only less than 5% of the waste is being recycled. Despite the massive amount and complexity of waste produced, the standards of waste management in Malaysia are still poor.

What is the problem with e-waste collection? ›

Environmental effects of e-waste: The toxic materials from electronic devices are released into bodies of water, groundwater, soil and air, affecting both land and sea animals. When you throw out your e-waste they wind up in landfills, causing toxic materials to seep into groundwater.

What is the waste management Act in Malaysia? ›

The Malaysian Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act No. 672 of 2007 aims to establish regulations and guidelines for the management of controlled solid waste and public cleansing. Its primary objective is to ensure adequate sanitation and address related matters as necessary.

What is Malaysian green strategy? ›

Recognising its wealth of natural resources, Malaysia strives to harmonise development with environmental responsibility. The Green Technology Master Plan (GTMP)[5], launched in 2017 and extending until 2030, is a strategic framework aimed at advancing sustainable development while combatting environmental degradation.

What is the hierarchy of waste management in Malaysia? ›

The standard hierarchy of waste management involves five crucial steps; reuse, reduce, recycling, treatment and disposal. Currently, the most predominantly employed step in Malaysia is disposal.

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